Largest Populated Areas In Australia Economics Essay
Firstly, we have analyzed demographic profile which shows about population, cities, literacy, religion, urbanisation, sex ratio, infant mortality rate and life expectancy at birth. It is very appealing to know about such factors related to economy.
Economic profile shows about the Economy of the Australia which is good and make a various trade agreements with the others countries for the various purposes such as Investment and Trade.
Industries, trade and commerce which cover all the industries such as Manufacturing, Fashion, Mining, Dairy, and Agriculture that portray all the factors of these individual industries.
Different economic sector of Australia which is mainly three sectors such as Primary (Industries such as Agriculture, Mining and Fishing), Secondary (Industries such as Automobile and Retail) and Territory (Industries such as Telecom, Banking and Tourism) tells about economic performance these various sectors.
Business & Trade at International level which gives information about foreign direct investment, major exports commodities & market and foreign investment by country and industry.
Trade relation with India/Gujarat which can cover content of Import-Export of India-Australia, Trade relationship and agreements signed between India-Australia.
At last Pestel analysis of the Australia which gives idea about political parties, Australian GDP, Agriculture aspects, social and technological analysis of Australia.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Demographic Profile of the Country
Economic Overview of the Country
Overview of Industries, Trade and Commerce
Overview Different economic sectors of selected country
Overviews of Business and Trade at International Level
Present Trade Relations and Business Volume of different products with India / Gujarat
Demographic Profile of the Australia:
Basically, Demographics of Australia includes statistics, most populous cities, ethnicity and religion. In 15th October 2012, the population of Australia is estimated 22,783,055. It is the 52nd largely full of people nation in the world. Predominantly it is consider as urban areas because it is likely to grow 28 million populations in 2030. It is the one of the world most urbanised countries.
Indigenous population: The first arrivals of indigenous Australian to the continent of Australia places are 40,000 years ago. First residents of Australia were initially hunter-gatherer peoples, who successive the continent & nearby islands. Australia have been sighted by Portuguese sailors in 1701 and Dutch navigators landed on the sinister coast of modern Western Australia some times during the 17th century. For the period of that time, the indigenous population was approximate to have been between 315,000 and 750,000.
Cities: Australia has cover five cities which shows one million people which is considered as a small population. Some are surrounded by the most important and global cities in the world.
Largest populated areas in Australia
(June 2011 Australian bureau of statistics estimates)
Gold Coast- tweed
Population density: In Australia, higher population densities can be seen in major cities. Density is the central area. The density in 2009 was 2.86 per km2.
Population growth rate: As per estimation in June 2009 that the growth of population is 1.2% which is based on:
1 birth every 1 minute and 45 seconds
1 death every 3 minute and 40 seconds
1 international migrant in 1 minute and 51 seconds
Population increase of 1 person in every 1 minute and 11 seconds.
As per estimates in 2009:
Birth rate – 12.47 births/1000 population
Mortality rate – 6.68 death/1000 population
Net Migration rate – 6.23 migrants/1000 population
Urbanisation: According to estimation of 2008, urbanisation population is considered as 89% of total population. The rate of 5 years (2005-2010) shows the change in annual rate of 1.2%.
Sex ratio: As per estimation of 2009, there is a ratio which shows that at birth, there are 1.06 males against females and under 15 year, it shows 1.05 males against female further from 15-64 years, there are 1.03 males against female and from 65 years onwards, it shows 0.84 males against female.
Infant mortality rate: According to 2009 estimation, there is total death is 4.75/1000 live births which include males and female respectively. The rate of male is 5.08 death/1000 live births and female is 4.4 death/1000 live births.
Life expectancy at birth: The total year is considered as 81.63 year which includes male and female. The life expectancy of male is 79.25 years and female is 84.15 years.
Religion: Australia is such country where there is no official religion but according to 2006 census, the largest religion is considered is Roman Catholicism which is cover 25.8% population. Next largest is Anglican faith which is cover 18.7% population and other 19.4% population follow Christian denominations.
Minority considered such as Buddhism (2.1% of population), Hinduism (0.7%) and Judaism (0.4%) where as 2% population includes Sikhism and indigenous belief and 18.7% population claimed. No religion where as 11.2% does not respond.
Literacy: There is define a particular age that is all can read and write is 15 and above. There is a 99% literacy of both, men and women.
Education expenditure: As per 2005 estimates that it is expenditure of 4.5% of gross domestic product.
Economic Overview of the Australia:
The economy of Australia is one of the mainly developed current market economies in the world, with a GDP of approx US$ 1.6 trillion. Australia total prosperity is 6.4 trillion dollars. In 2011, it was the 13th largest national economy by nominal GDP and the 17th largest measured by PPP adjusted GDP, representing about 1.7% of the world economy. External debt is $1.169 trillion and also ranked the 19th largest importer and exporter.
The Australian securities exchange is the largest stock exchange in Australia. A largest company including BHP biliton, National Australian bank, Common wealth bank, Rio tinto group…etc plays an important role in it.
Key economic trends:
The growth is uninterrupted during decade in Australian economy which affects the pressure of the global economic crisis and is in period of minimal or zero growth. Whereas consumer demand has strong and housing sector robust, but forecast of GDP is 2009 is 0.5% but recovery in economic growth to 1.2% in 2010. The unemployment rate for 2008 was estimated at 4.2% and it is forecast to rise to 5% in 2009 and it is 5 3by 4% in 2010.
The reserve bank of Australia will cut interest rate in 2009 despite of inflation is forecast on bank’s target imports of goods rose by AUD $5.6 billion in 2008 and it rise AUD $59.8 billion.
Trade agreement and Canadian trade with Australia:
Canada’s overall exports to Australia in 2010 were esteemed at CAD $1.75 billion. Canada main exports to Australia include-machinery, aircraft & parts, sulphur, electrical machinery, iron ore and medical instruments.
Canada’s imports from Australia were value CAD $1.6 billion in 2010. Canada’s main imports from Australia include- inorganic chemicals, wine, machinery, vehicles and ores and pharmaceuticals.
Changes in trade and investment conditions:
Tariff reductions- The common tariff reduction on manufacturing goods has now fallen to 5%. Duties on passenger motor vehicles (PMV) and parts components have been reduced from 10% to 5% on 1 January 2010. Duties on textile, clothing & foot wear (TCF) have fallen to 10%. Since 1 January 2005 will be the same rate as other manufactured goods-5% in 2015.
Pharmaceuticals-Trade in prescription and non-prescription pharmaceuticals between Australia & Canada have been enhanced through a mutual recognition agreement signed in March 2005. This agreement allows manufacturer batch certifications to be recognised by one without re-analysis by the other.
Upcoming trade agreements:
The Australian government has the following free trade agreement under consideration:
Australia-India feasibility study
Taking forward their rising economic ties, Australia and India are close to complete a feasibility study to establish a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) in a wide range of areas.
India is the fifth largest market for Australia. The amount of exports from Australia is to the tune of 19 billion Australian dollars. The export of cooking coal alone fetches 5 billion Australian dollars a year to the country's economy. The FTA will cover a wide range of areas as Australia has huge natural resources.
"After the feasibility study both the countries will finalise the areas which will come under FTA". Australian oil and gas company ExxonMobil has signed a contract with Petro net of India to supply Liquefied Natural Gas by 2014. The agreement was signed on August 10. Australia would export uranium to India.
Australia supports India's objective to become a permanent member in UN Security Council, he said. To take forward the bilateral ties, a number of Australian ministers including Prime Minister Kevin Rudd would visit New Delhi. Australian Foreign Minister Stephen Smith is expected to visit India in October.
Nine Indian ministers including Foreign Minister S M Krishna have visited Australia in the last 18 months which showed the growing bilateral ties between the two countries.
Indian students constitute a major portion of the international students in Australia. There were about 4.29 lakhs international students in Australia last year including over 90,000 from India. Nearly 50 per cent of the Indian students pursue vocational education and training which is largely controlled by private sector.
Overview of Industries, Trade and Commerce:
The economy of the Australia is one of the most largest, developed and modern market economies in the world. The Australia’s per capita income is $ 69007 which is higher than the UK, Germany and France in order to Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the Australia is US $1.6 trillion. In which for nominal GDP, Australia was the 13th largest national economy in 2011. Australia is the 17th largest national economy measured by PPP. The currency of Australia is Australian Dollar. The Australia has the largest stock exchange i.e. Australian Securities Exchange.
The Australia is also entered into Free Trade Agreements (FTA) with many countries which involve ASEAN, New Zealand, Thailand, and United States. Australia is also very developed in the import and export. Australia is the 19th largest importer as well as 19th largest exporter in the world. The goods export by Australia are coal, educational aids, gold, iron ore, diamonds, wine, meat, natural gas, wheat, machinery and transport equipments, wool, and aluminium. From 1970s to 2001, export increased in all sectors in Australia. Whereas during 2001 to 2003, export decreased in some sectors in Australia. During the year 2003 the export again increases but not increase in the mining sector. In the year 2005-06, 42000 Australian enterprises are involved in exporting activity. The main export markets of Australia are Japan, India, China, United States, South Korea, etc. The most common export market of Australia is New Zealand. In 2011, the total goods export by Australia was of $ 266 billion which is 20th largest exporter in the national economy. The goods imports by Australia are machinery and transport equipments, crude oil, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipments and parts, and petroleum products. During 15 years, till 2006 Australia’s imports increased by 8% i.e. around $200 billion. The total import of Australia was $ 194.7 billion which is 19th largest importer in the national economy in 2010. The main import markets of Australia are United States, Japan, China, Germany, Singapore, Thailand, and Malaysia. The imports help to increase competitiveness of the Australian firms for the current as well as the future time period.
Australia is a member of the APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Community), G20, OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) and WTO (World Trade Organization) organizations.
In Australia 2 million trading businesses are available. In Australian Business 3 types of businesses are there which include small size, medium size and large size. Small size business have less than 20 full time employees, medium size business have 20-200 employees which is 4% of the Australian firms whereas large size businesses have more than 200 employees which are 0.3% of the total Australian firms.
Australia is very largest and developed country in the world. There are many largest companies are available in Australia out of which the 10 largest companies are BHP Billiton, National Australia Bank, Common Wealth Bank, Telstra, Macquarie Bank, Woolworths, Rio Tinto Group, ANZ, Westpac and AMP.
There are many industries are available in Australia which include mining, industrial sector, education and transport equipments, food processing industry, chemicals, steel, fishing, natural gas, agriculture, and wine and tourism. In which, the economic growth of Australia is largely depend on the mining sector because the total GDP of service sector is 68% of the total GDP out of which GDP of mining sector is 19%.
The GDP of Australia is also different according to sectors which include agriculture sector’s total GDP is 4%, industry’s total GDP is 24.8% and service sector’s GDP is 71.2% during year 2010. The major concentrations of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) are on mainly two main sectors in Australia which are Information Technology and Software sectors.
Overview of Manufacturing Industry:
The Australian Manufacturing Industry is mainly focused on research and development. The Australia is invested in research and development for the purpose of exploring new and modern technologies which is helpful for creating very bright future of manufacturing industry of Australia.
Australian Manufacturing Industry provide standardized products and goods for the use of people in their daily lives as per customer and industry requirements in order to survive in the competitive market as compared to other countries like China. The GDP of manufacturing industry in Australia was increased to 25% in 1960s and had decreased to 13% in 2001-02 and 10.5% in 2005-06. The total investment in manufacturing industry in 2000-01 was $ 3000 million. The manufacturing industry exported products worth $67,400 million and also helps to employed 1.1 million people during the period 2004-05.
The main manufacturing industry group include various industries like aircraft industry, furnishing industry, chemical industry, clay and ceramics industry, glass industry, insulation materials manufacturing, paint manufacturing industry, brush and broom making industry, rope, cordage and thread industry, and leather and canvas industry. The GDP in Australian manufacturing industry has declined from 30% in 60s to 12% in 2007.
Overview of Fashion Industry:
The fashion industry of Australia has developed very rapidly in the past 20 years. The Australian fashion industry has got relaxation from trade tariff which proved very beneficial for the fashion industry of Australia in order to send patterns and orders around the world in the short time period.
The Australian fashion industry also involves apparel sector which is the mixture of few large as well as many small establishments. The large establishments are mainly focused on low end fashion and long run production items. Whereas small establishments prefer changes according to the changes in the garment market so that it only focused on high end fashion and short run production.
The majority designers of Australia prefer to use the natural fibres like wool and cottons which are easily originate in the Australia to gain the seasonality differences from other countries. The Australian fashion designers also using other fibres like cashmere, mohair, and alpaca. The Australian fashion industry presents their fashions and designs at the Mercedes Australian Fashion Week which is presented annually. The Mercedes Australian Fashion Week begun in the year 1996. This fashion week helps to the many fashion designers to present their designs at international market. In Australia most promising and prominent Australian fashion designers present their designs in this event which involve Brown, Lisa Ho, Saba, Marcs and Collette Dinnigan
During 2001, this fashion week helps to increase 45% in the fashion buyers as well as in the international media representatives who visiting the fashion week event in Sydney. In Australian fashion industry, the level of demand for domestic consumers is valued in surplus of $ 10 billion per annum.
The government of Australia also increase their support to Australian fashion industry which is beneficial to increase the competitiveness in the world. The government also invested for innovation and technology developments in order to reduce the costs of production in Australia.
Overview of Mining Industry:
Australia is richly gifted with minerals and energy resources. Mining is the most important as well as major part of the economy of Australia. The total GDP of mining industry was 7.4% in 2009. Mining industry is also concerned in exporting. The total export of mining industry is 41% of the total exports by Australia.
Overview of Dairy Industry:
The dairy industry of Australia is the good model of positive impact of improvement and changes in the international competitiveness and growth in the export.
Till the year 1980, there were no changes in the dairy industry. Many price support programs and strict regulations were maintained by the federal as well as the state governments of Australia. This was beneficial for the smaller producers in the northern state who only produce for their local market.
After the year 1980, various improvements and changes were initiated by the Australian government. All the price support programs or mechanisms were removed by the federal and state governments in July 2000. The growth of Australian dairy industry is mainly depending on the export. The growth of export market takes place in Asia and Middle East.
Overview of Agricultural Industry:
The agricultural industry is one of the most trade exposed sector of the Australian economy. Even though there are many problems that agriculture sector face in Australia which involve currency fluctuations, price volatility, water security, low soil fertility, subsidies to the farmers in other countries and global warming due to changes in the climate in Australia. Many agricultural products which are produced for domestic use as well as for exporting. Which include wheat, fruits and nuts, vegetables, wool, barley, sugarcane, oilseeds, poultry, and cereals.
Australian agricultural sector also produces different variety of fruits like banana, oranges, mangoes, apples, pineapples as well as different variety of vegetables like potatoes, carrots, and tomatoes in the Queensland and Northern territory.
Overview Different Economic Sectors Of Australia:
In the primary sector of economy the product are extracts from the earth. The production of raw material and food are included in the primary sector. Various activities associated with primary sector are as follows:
Australia is the major producer of agriculture product. Agriculture and its related sectors earn $ 155 billion a year for 12% of GDP. The various agriculture product produce in Australia are wheat, milk. Fruits and nuts, vegetables, wools and sugarcane. Australia is also an major exporter for agriculture products. The total production in 2010-11 in Australia was $60 billion and an export was around $ 45 billion. In the Australian economy agriculture provides large share of Australia’s export: 21% merchandise export compared to 3% of GDP. Around 70% of the products are being exported from Australia. The products which are exported are wheat, cotton, wool and sugar. Australian agriculture sector provide major opportunity for job. Around 350000 jobs are provided in 2010-11. Agriculture products are inputs for many industries mainly for food processing industry.
Mining industries plays vital role for increasing the economic growth of the country. The contribution of mining industries is 6.5% towards the GDP of Australia. Australia is the largest producer of bauxite, diamond, and zircon. Australia is also an substantial producer of coal, iron, gold, zinc and silver. In Australia, only small proportion of minerals is being refined in country and rest is being exported. Australian mineral industry earns about 60% of earning from export. In Australia mining services, equipment and technology are being exported. The raw material mined in Australia is exported to the countries such as china for processing in to refined product. Much of iron ore of Australia is exported to china. The mining industry employs 2.2% of total labour force in Australia. Coal is used for generating electricity, it is mined in Australia. About 75% of coal is being exported from Australia.
Australia’s fishing industry is considered as world’s third largest fishing zone. Australia has ranked 52nd in the world terms of volume of land for fishing. Total 19000 people are employed in fishing sector. Out of that 14250 are in marine fishing sector and other 8560 are employed in processing and wholesaling. Fishing industry consist sea food product which is marketed for human consumption. It also consist non edible product such as pearls and fish meals. In 2007-08 Australia imported exported fishers product for value of $1.3 billion, and imported fishing product for the value of $1.4 billion in the same year.
The secondary sector of the economy is consult with manufacturing finished goods. It includes manufacturing, processing and construction. Secondary sector includes following activities:
In Australia the automobile consist of two different sector, the automobile manufacturing sector and automobile retail, repair and service sector. The largest employment in automobile sector is covered by motor vehicle. Motor vehicle consist bus manufacturing, motor car manufacturing, motor vehicle engine manufacturing, truck manufacturing, van manufacturing.
Australia has three large automobile manufacturers: ford, general motors, and Toyota. Australia also has large number auto-component company and retail dealership across the country. Automobile industry is one of the largest manufacturing industries, which add around 5.7 % value in manufacturing industry and around 0.6% value added to total economy. Australian automobile industry provides employment around 3.0% of total labour force of Australia.
There are about 140000. Retail business in Australia. The GDP of retail sector in Australia is 4.1%. The retail sector provides 10.7 % employment. The new innovation of online retail sector has increase the market share of retail sector. The online retailing represents6 per cent of total Australian retail sales — made up of 4 per cent domestic online and 2 per cent from overseas .
The territory sector provides services to the people. It is service industry.
In 2011 overall Australian telecom service revenue was passed $40 billion. In Australia the major mobile carriers which have their own GSM network are Telstra, Optus, and Vodafone. In 2011 the worth of mobile market was more than $17.5. the mobile market has been expand up to the 8%. The majority growth in telecom sector is due to mobile wireless broadband market. In Australia mobile revenue is considerably more than overall 50% revenue. In the financial year 2011 the total revenue of Telstra was about $7 billion with Optus around $6billions and Vodafone is $4.5 billion. The Australian telecom industry continues grow in the year 2011.
In Australia the domestic credit provides by banking sector is 135.12 in 2011. The function of central bank is performed by the reserve bank of Australia. The top four bank in Australia are commonwealth bank, Westpac banking corporation, Australia and New Zealand banking group, national Australian bank. The market share of commonwealth bank is an $84.54 billion, that of Westpac banking corporation A$ 64.56 billion. The market share of New Zealand banking group is a$59.03 billions with the market share of national Australian bank a$52.73 billions.
The GDP of tourism industry was 2.5 % in the year 2010-11. The domestic tourism has contributed 73% of total direct tourism GDP of Australia. Tourism industry is responsible for the employment of 513700 in the year 2010-11. About 8% of total export earnings in the year 2010-11 is contributed by tourism industry.
Overviews of Business and Trade at International Level:
This section provides information on:
major export commodities and markets
foreign investment by country and industry
location of domestic and regional headquarters of multinational corporations
size of the Australian share market and futures/options market relative to other Asia Pacific locations
international business visitors to NSW and Sydney
Direct international air links.
Australia was ranked among the 10 most attractive destinations in the world for foreign direct investment (FDI) in the last three surveys of transnational corporations in the World Investments Prospects Survey conducted by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. The total stock of foreign investment in Australia was over $2 trillion as at December 2011. Over the past five years, the world's investment in Australia has grown by 37%, with foreign direct investment expanding by 51%. New South Wales is home to 40% of the top 500 companies in Australia, reflecting the State's advantages as a place to do business.
Sydney is an important regional financial hub in the Asia Pacific. The Australian Securities Exchange, based in Sydney, is the first major market to open each day and is the 11th largest in the world by market capitalization, or the 10th largest in terms of float or freely available share capital. Australia has the fourth largest managed investment market in the world, which has attracted many global funds management companies to Sydney.
Several countries have had strong trend growth of FDI in Australia, but remain small. For example, Chinese FDI in Australia recorded an annual average growth rate of 90% in the five years to 2011 and makes up around 3% of total FDI in Australia. Singapore's FDI has grown an average 29% per annum since 2006 and accounts for 4%of total Australian FDI.
FDI is an indicator of long-term investment relationships, where the investor has the capacity to significantly influence the management of the investment. The total stock of FDI in Australia grew by 6.6% from 2010 to 2011, reflecting healthy confidence in the Australian economy, despite the effects of the global financial crisis in 2008 and ongoing volatility in world economic conditions.
Stock of Foreign Direct Investment in Australia by Country, 2011
Total stock of investment
Share of total foreign investment
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
Share of total FDI
Hong Kong SAR
International capital markets2
Total all sources
44% of the 931,000 international business visitors to Australia in 2011 stayed at least one night in New South Wales. Of these visitors to the State, 40% were from Asia, mainly China, Singapore, Japan and Hong Kong SAR, sparkly the State's close links to the main economies of Asia. Visitors from New Zealand contributed 23% of international business visitors to New South Wales, whereas North America and Europe each made up 15% of international business visitors to New South Wales.
International Business Visitors to major cities in Australia, 2011
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
China (excludes SARs and Taiwan)
Present Trade Relations and Business Volume Of Different Products with India / Gujarat:
Australia–India relations are the foreign relations between the Republic of India and the Commonwealth of Australia. Before independence Australia and India were both part of the British Empire and both are members of the Commonwealth of Nations. They also share political, economic, security, linguistic and sporting ties. India and Australia have several commonalities, which serve as a foundation for closer cooperation and multifaceted interaction. Both are strong, vibrant, secular and multicultural democracies. They both have a free press and an independent judicial system; the English language is an important link. Cricket is a significant element in awareness at the popular level.
For India, Australia is 9th most important destination for Indian Foreign Direct Investment, which worth $1 billion. The movement of people and development of knowledge is a significant component of the Australia India relationship and any Agreement must contribute to facilitating this cross border movement. Australia is welcoming more Indian visitors than ever before as tourists, students and migrants. In 2009, over 124,000 Indians visited Australia as tourist.
India-Australia bilateral trade is in a buoyant phase. It has been growing at 20 per cent for the past five years. According to the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), Australia is India’s 8th largest investor with over $1 billion approved for around 140 Joint ventures. This investment mostly covers Manufacturing, Telecommunications, Hotels, Minerals processing, Food processing, Oil and Gas, and Automobile sectors and various other sectors as follow:
Sectors of Export Import between India and Australia
Infrastructure development including roads, ports, airports and railways;
Oil and Natural gas including LNG
Drugs and pharmaceuticals
Water management, Soil conservation and waste disposal
Food processing and agribusiness
Film and television
Processing of gems and Jewellery
India’s trade relationship with Australia:
India has become Australia’s fastest-growing services export market after China. If we consider the service sector than, India’s service exports to Australia moved modestly upwards from US$123 million in 2000 to US$519 million in 2011. Services exports to India from Australia have also grown rapidly, from US$273 million in 2000 to US$2.4 billion in 2011.
As of 2010, bilateral trade between the two countries totalled USD$18.7 billion, having grown from a$4.3 billion in 2003. This is expected to rise to touch the mark of $40 billion by end of year 2016. Trade is highly skewed towards Australia. Australia mainly exports Coal, non-monetary Gold and Copper Ore and agricultural goods to India, while India's chief exports are pearls, precious and semi-precious stones, textiles and clothing. Over 97,000 Indian students enrolled in Australia in 2008, representing an education export of $2 billion.
India and Australia conducted a joint naval exercise, termed Malabar 2007, in the Indian Ocean along with USA, Japan and Australia. In 2007, the Australian government led off the Liberal Party agreed in principle to sell uranium to fuel India's nuclear reactors.
India first recognized a Trade Office in Sydney, Australia in 1941. It is presently represented by a High Commissioner in the embassy at Canberra and Consulate generals in Sydney and Melbourne. Besides being Commonwealth countries, both nations are founding members of the United Nations, and members of regional organizations together with the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation and ASEAN Regional forum. Australia has usually supported India's position on Arunachal Pradesh, which is claimed by China
Principal commodities Indian exports to Australia (2010-2011):
Vehicles other than Railway or Tramway rolling stock
Natural or Cultured pearls, Precious or semiprecious stones, Pre metals, Clad with pre metal and articles thereof; IMIT Jewellery; Coin
Electrical Machinery and Equipment and Parts Thereof; Sound Recorders and Reproducers, Television Image and Sound Recorders
Nuclear Reactors, Boilers, Machinery and Mechanical Appliances, Pharmaceutical Products
Other Made Up Textile Articles; Sets; Worn Clothing and Worn Textile Articles; Rags
Optical, Photographic Cinematographic Measuring, Checking Precision, Medical or Surgical Inst
Coffee, Tea, Mate and Spices
Principal commodities Indian imports from Australia (2010-2011):
Mineral Fuels, Mineral Oils and Products of their Distillation; Bituminous Substances; Mineral Waxes.
Natural or Cultured Pearls, Precious Or Semiprecious Stones ,Pre Metals, Clad with Pre Metal and Articles thereof; IMIT Jewellery; Coin
Ores, Slag and Ash.
Wool, Fine or Coarse Animal Hair, Horsehair Yarn and Woven Fabric.
Nickel and Articles thereof
Edible Vegetables and Certain Roots and Tubers
Inorganic Chemicals; Organic or Inorganic Compounds of Precious Metals, Rare-Earth Metals or Radi. Elem. or Isotopes
Nuclear Reactors, Boilers, Machinery and Mechanical Appliances
The Agreements made between India and Australia:
List of bilateral agreements signed between India and Australia
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in the field of Agriculture and allied sectors was signed by the representatives of the Agriculture Ministries of both countries.
S&T Cooperation for exchange of scientific and technological information, documentation and publications, exchange of scientists and experts and implementation of bilateral-projects of mutual interest.
Agreement on Infrastructure Cooperation in the Health Sector.
Convention of the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income.
Agreement on the Promotion and Protection of Investments.
Agreement on bilateral economic relations and economic, Industrial, technical and technological cooperation.
Amendment of Agreement on Air Services (which was signed in Oct. 1989) (Austrian Airlines started Operations to India Oct.1997)
Memorandum of Understanding on Co- operation with regard to Environment
Agreement on Air Services
Agreement on the Establishment of the Austro-Indian Joint Economic Commission
India-Australia trade relations of last 5 Year
(Value in US$ Million)
India’s Total Trade
PEST Analysis Of Australia:
Political analysis of Australia:
Australia’s liberal democracy is built around a constitutional monarchy and the British Westminster system, but with the American federal structure grafted onto it. Australia is a federal system, one in which the Constitution divides power between the national, or federal, government and the States. As a result, the political and financial relationship between the States and the Federal Government is an ongoing concern.
A political party is generally recognized as an organization of like-minded people which aims to develop policies and endorse candidates to contest elections with a view to forming government. Australia’s party system is dominated by two major groups, the Australian Labour Party and the coalition parties, the Liberal Party of Australia and The Nationals. Since 1922, Australian Federal Governments have been formed either by Labour or the Coalition.
Economical analysis of Australia:
25.4 billion USD in December of 2011. The gross domestic product (GDP) is process of national income and output for a given country's economy. The gross domestic product (GDP) is equal to the total expenditures for all final goods and services produced within the country in a predetermined period of time. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Australia was worth 1371.76 billion US dollars in 2011, according to a report published by the World Bank. The GDP worth of Australia is approximately equal to 2.21 percent of the world economy. Previously, from 1965 until 2011, Australia GDP averaged 328.1 billion USD reaching an all time high of 1371.8 billion USD in December of 2011 and a record low of page includes a chart with past data for Australia GDP.
Source: www.tradingeconomics.com/ THE WORLD BANK GROUP
Australian agricultural production helps provide food and clothing for a nation of over 20 million people. In adding together, Australia exports around 65% of its agricultural production. Australian agriculture contributes around 3% to GDP and accounts for about 65% of water use and almost 60% of Australia’s land area. Industry structure and performance Australia’s GDP in 2005–06 reached $922 billion, an increase of 2.8% on the preceding year. The GDP per person was more than $44,000. A total of 10 million Australians are employed in industry. The greatest number worked in the retail industry (1.5 million), followed by property and business services (1.2 million) and manufacturing (1.1 million). Mining activity accounts for around 8% of Australia’s gross domestic product and has contributed over $500b directly to Australia’s wealth during the past 20 years. There are around 320,000 Australians employed in the industry, either directly or indirectly in support industries
Social analysis of Australia:
Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean
Climate: normally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north.
Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%, non-Christian 11%, other 12.6%.
Languages in Australia: English is the main language used in Australia.
A Multi-Cultural Society: The original population of Australia was made up of Aborigines and people of British and Irish fall. After World War II there was important migration from Europe, especially from Greece, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Yugoslavia, Lebanon, and Turkey. This was in response to the Australian procedure of proactively trying to attract immigrants to increase the population and work force. In the last thirty years, Australia has liberalized its immigration policy and opened its borders to South East Asia. This has caused a real shift in self-perception as Aussies begin to re-define themselves as a multi-cultural and multi-faith society rather than the old homogenous, white, Anglo- Saxon, Protestant nation.
Technological analysis of Australia:-
Information and communication technology Household right to use to the Internet has grown from 1.1 million households in 2008 to 4.7 million in 2010–11.There were 6.7 million active Internet subscribers in Australia in September 2011, with more than 1.1 million using connections with speeds of 1.5 megabits per second (Mbps) or greater. Research and innovation Expenditure on research and development (R&D) in Australia reached more than $15.7 billion in 2010–11, up more than 19% on the figure two years before. Australian business accounted for the maximum expenditure on R&D (54%), followed by higher education (27%).
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