Perception Persuasion And Technology Cultural Studies Essay
Selection is a stage of the perception process, which is an effort at discovery of reality by the human mind .it, is part of the brains perceptive ability in exploring of surroundings. (Noah, P. 2009 p. i). It is the concept that describes the act of the human minds ability to separate a trait of a thing from many other traits and classify it as a single entity. Many studies explain selection as part of the perception process.
George Herbert mead coined this theory to explain culture and communication human behavior (Hogan, J. 2005, and p.134).It is a classic case of human natural tendency to select symbols and attach meaning. It occurs in the mind and is a crucial aspect of the way beings communicate. Selection occurs when we start classifying traits into desirable or into classifiable ways.
Many theories of communication capture the essence of the use of these human elements of perception especially the mass market where people seem to do what others are doing.
These shape and influence level of objectivity .people are initially subjective in consumption experiences as individual consumers
However there are Limitations in perceptions that might never be corrected due to the specific limitations of experiences, which can never be similar due to different culture all over the world .The social milieu of different climatic conditions also determine perception levels of our senses which always remain limiting factors due to their subjective nature.
2. Communication by use of persuasive messages.
Persuasion is the core of communication and it marks career growth in a world governed by communication techniques ranging from the media to politics to presidential campaigns and advocacy activities.
This shows the iceberg of how good persuasion theories and techniques are employed to achieve their goals. Fear appeals and source credibility are two main theories that strongly affect persuasive messages by focusing on the elements of fear, which tend to elicit positive behavioral traits in favor of self-preservation. Fear is the biggest driver for action. The fear of failure and any message, which reminds people of bad consequences or undesirable consequence, captures the attention of people
The theorist of the Fear Appeals Theory, Kim witte argues that motivation from fear of disease or sicknesses in health is main motivator to take action to healing.. This theory of Fear Appeals shows us exactly how fear is being manipulated by our leaders and politicians today. It is used as a motivator for positive behavior to support ideals dear to others, or as a reaction, to create lifestyle changes. it is practical theory for people who must persuade others to change their actions whether they like the changes or not regardless of their subjective desires(Griffin,E.1997).this fear factor is seen in the Theory of the coordinated management of meaning by(benett Pearce & Vernon cronen) . It suggest how people they need a way of talking about racialism without the fear of being branded a racists (Griffin, 2000). Fear theorist show that people construct their own social realities while at the same time they are influenced by the fear factors in the worlds they create. Fear motivates people to focus on what is good to avoid what they fear, hate,or what they despise(Griffin,E.1997). We can see that Burke developed the theory of Dramatism highlighting how peoples behavior is determined by the motives of failure, fear, frustration, resent, competitiveness, ambition(Griffin, E.1997).
Cultivation theory, by George Gerbner which is also known as cultivation analysis argues that television cultivate fear t motivate the masses to homogenous behavior the programs and movies elucidates action for chance of becoming victims of violence, and fears lonely places. Even fearing to walk alone. Our society's storyteller is television and dramatic violence, its main cultivator of an exaggeration in beliefs of mean scary world of hate and macho peopleâ€¦ This level of Mainstreaming creates a homogeneous fearful populations worldwide. This is why advertisements are part of fear appeals campaign with veiled threats of fear of consequences of failure to purchase specific products as a technique reinforced by the homogeneity of fear as a social construct. According to theorist Jessie Delia, using theory if constructivism people have more complex cognition levels and constructs sophisticated messages and plans to enable them pursue multiple goals. This is a way of adopting to the theories fo fear appeal, This is why the mass media and television have ability to deliver tailormade persuasive menu in their programmes to communicate business ideas and hence achieve their outcomes to advertiser.this is the best application of the fear appeal to business communjkcation in our world of consumerism(Griffin,E.2008).
On the other hand, the theorists of credibility theory argue that on the surface it seems self-evident to judge others as credible but in reality people make subjective credibility assessment in order to be persuaded (Hovland, C.I., et al, (1953).Hovland also designed the reinforcement theory that people will also get to compare how a message reinforces the ideas validity(Griffin,E.2008).
Consumer of products are persuaded when the source presents itself as credible. When we look into more details on the levels of credibility, there are three models of the theory and each is a real case ascenario to be applied in business communjcation. These are the factor model, functional model and constructivism model. This model of credibility analysis all the relevant factors affecting or to be affected by the intended actions or ideas. the functional model looks at how the credible are the various functions in part and as a whole while the and the constructivist model attempt to analyze how the common person is likely to construct a credible reality to assign a level of rating as a credibility reference point (Griffin,E.2000).
Expectancy Violations Theory by JUdee burgoon attempts to explain how interpersonal expectations are strategically place to lead to conforming behaviors. When there is ambiguity in people indicate lack of credibility, and persuasiveness by working against expectations. And when sanctions are applied with negative effects people change their actions to match expectations and vice versa(Griffin,E.2003)
Credibility even in rumors seems to be very persuasive and even lead to change according Assimilation contrast theory (Young in terms of rumors tend to increase their credibility. Any evidence of credibility in the roomer means people will ultimately change attitudes, to the subject(Griffin,E.2006).
Communicators apply the theory of focus on two-sided messages theory, which swings from good versus bad or evil versus virtue in business product offerings.
The Theory of one-sided messages which are one-sided focus on the pros and cons of a particular subject and have more impact(Heath,R.2000.p.183). Accordingly, multi sided messages are effective in addressing humans who are bombarded by information from all sides. There allot of messages competing for attention on varying level's from governments to churches to wedding and s family social gatherings.. The modern mass media advertising competes for people's time and space. It and has continued to cause psychological impact on customers.
The world is witnessing overflow of theories of communication and information explosion giving rise to campaigns which demand skills in communication .Every one today must communicate and success depends on the way message are given by use of well thought out theories. Generally, credibility and appeal to fear are very strong traits of successful persuasion.
Source credibility is a very critical communication theory, which works for many different situations and scenarios. The credibility of a speaker of or message depends on the communicator's attractiveness. The Persuasion is a psychological process, which appeals to people's ideals and aspirations and moves them to action(Sharma k, k.2004 p.160).
The Likelihood elaboration theory confirms that there is a middle ground in every situation due to many likelihoods or options in any given time and people weigh the various alternatives. This alternatives point out the level of being biased as opposed to unbiased .The start point is what motivates people to counteract any different viewpoints, which seem hard to challenge. In addition, these leads to changes in peoples attitudes according to the theorists, Richard, P. & Cacippio, J. (Griffin,E.2008).
The communication accommodation theory by Howard Giles postulates that People who feel their culture is unique normally adjust their speech and style to match the values of other cultures m whose approval desire.
Those who want to identify strongly with a group tend to accentuate their uniqueness with those outside their circle(Howard,G.etal, 1973).
Another theorist Solomon on communication accommodation theory argues that our culture and attitudes affect our ability to be objective and these depend on those we communicate with, and our preparedness for new ideas and our defense's argument. (Solomon, M, 2009.p. 8O)
Inoculation theory created by MCQUIRE to address and penetrate difficult cultures with long held cultural beliefs, which are beyond the conscious at the subconscious levels hence very hard to challenges as they are unconformable(mcquire, W.(1961). The best weapon is therefore the inoculation theory of infiltration into the hard liners position by gradual systematic persuasion. According tothis theory provides expert platform to show communication techniques designed to elicit particular tailored response and these responses can be used by savvy business persons(Stiff, B. & Mongeau, p. 2003, p. 286, 287)
Businesses can use the inoculation technique to ensure products on sale inoculated against cultural truism that endanger the future consumptions patterns of a particular brand. Many business products have suffered from cultural immunity where products are seen as anti-culture at the local levels. To do these communicators for business use communication inoculation theory to penetrate tough markets.
This theory promotes resistance to persuasion by competitors by using weak arguments like the way doctors use weak virus to developed immunity to actual disease infections. This is against cultural truism, which is widely held beliefs and is rarely unchallenged.
These theories show us that it is possible by use of specific theories to handle different situations like inoculation theories where cultural imperatives are the barriers.
3. Impact of technology on Business communication theories
Business communication theory can never be the same again there is tremendous business theory implications through the new technology especially internet communication and business transactions online. The new media demand every serious business to move with the times. From the biggest superpower to the smallest country of this world, impacts of business communication theories will be earth breaking.
For example starting from inoculation theory, which can be sending by internet at high speeds to millions of email users worldwide, the wide worldwide web has revolutionized the way theories were disseminated to the people.
This theory is the best way to inoculate billions of our globe against poor business practices, bad business ethics and terrorism, business risks, financial mismanagement Today cable television, the use of social media means that business communication theories will be very effective due to real time delivery to targeted audiences around the world.
The inoculation theory, has now started being implemented by business people starting with the prevention of attitude change among brand loyalist in some songs ,music downloaded around the world in real times every second peole are being inoculated and clever business people will advertises through Google, yahoo, MSN, and other search engines to inoculate there brands before launching new products.
Youths are being inoculated against joining illegal gangs today .Gang prevalence including terrorism tendecies will reduce due to inoculation theory world wide(Breen, G.2009). Business communication using technology of the internet will determine what the six billion people think, eat ,vote, what people read of course they will pay these products as per advertisers prices .
The seriousness of impact on society will be magical and miraculous. This is change that technology can never again control as it difficult to weigh level of homogenous world due to its radical nature of transforming our mass market. Through the internet, the theories are is applied persuasive messages developed to change credibility and attitudes, and to promote its replication worldwide.
Other theories with similar impact are nth fear appeal theory and the credibility theory. They will be the reference masters of future businesses which will optimize Face- book,twitter,yahoo,google and search engines marketing will use inoculation is used to describe how to share information to receivers before the message process takes place. This in adopts there action that the information would make the receivers more resistant and uses psychological basIs
The theorist William McGuire (961) according to this theory persuasion is achieved by alternative counterarguments based and build from own subjective Interpretations similar to religious dogma when faith is individualized this is building on capitalism idea if individualism versus the communalism. Inoculation in biological sense is used in that a less harmful disease often gives immunity to a more harmful disease and this underlies the success of the medical profession even in HIV AID virus vaccine trial. Business communication ahs now borrowed leaf from health and the theories are intertwined by success in individual difference
Technology determines today whose voices are heard and influence who gets to have a voice, and are heard better, clearly than anyone else because they use information communication technology they become the gatekeepers of their products and their communities. They are adopters of new technology media and they are on the cutting edge pioneers of business communication.
Technology will lead to closer consumer relationships with businesses and more product knowledge since the consumer is bombarded with many technological gadgets with better choice and variety as compared to traditional menu. These must create better interpersonal relationships between people and their customers
The business, which will adapt to technology through communication, will rule the worlds of business and the earlier a business implements the new media technology the better.
Information technology for today is the main controller and mover of international businesses because distance has been reduced and many products are manufactured for the global village.
The mass market is over six billion humans in the world today and the world populations still growing at a fast rate. Bets theories rely on the mantra that information is power and it emancipates many businesses .The ones, which do not adopt will die and close down.
Business communication theories have been somersaulted by new technologies as these businesses rely on communication as well technology. It is important for business people today to perceptive technologists who take advantage of interactive technologies of today like face book, twitter buzz, ijhoos, yahoo mail, Google and other ipods, ipads, mps CD'S DVDs presentational and radio interactive shows. As well as business in the internet through search, engine optimizations as well as new media, using music mobile technology. Others are broadband technologies and call in radio talk's show promoting particular brand to the mass markets. The technology to implement theories on wide scale for business success is here to be tapped for growth the world has more than six billion humans are waiting for business communicators to reach them every second very minute very hours through the worldwide web the internet, network of businesses.
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