women prisoners in india and australia
Introduction - This research proposal aims to discuss on the Australia’s women prisoners in Townsville, Queensland and the India’s women prisoners of Goa. A critical comparison between the 2 jails will be cited. Practically, there are already numerous accounts of literature reviews pertaining to the transition management of prisoners both in Goa and Queensland during the former decades, which are conducted by governments, scholars and advocates in answer to the growing prisoner populations and recidivism rates. A general international agreement is already taking place in these places along with other countries on the best practice principles and common patterns in jails that have been observed over jurisdictions, which, thus, permits the concerned parties to share and cooperate on the cases.
Hypotheses - This research proposal has objectives and hypothesis needed to be applied in the prison management of Queensland in Australia and Goa of India (Walsh, 2006). The following are specified as: Hypothesis 1 – Is the Prisoner Rehabilitation Policy and Practice found in Queensland and Goa correcting? and Hypothesis 2 – What are the best practice programs applied in Goa and Queensland, which are ensuing in addressing their prisoners’ welfare and treatment needs, hence justifying the effects of their disadvantage and lessening their susceptibility to commit future crimes?
Theoretical Framework - In this research proposal, Michel Foucault's "power-knowledge-discipline" concepts shall be applied as a suggestion for the prisoner rehabilitation policy and practice to be applied in Queensland, Australia. He is important for this short application,
when one considers the regulation of bodies, time and space in the
imprisonment context. To me, the delivery of human rights might be
constrained by such regulation. The theorist is known for his book - “The Archaeology of Knowledge” (Bate, 2007). He argues in his magisterial Discipline and Punishment: The Birth of the Penitentiary that the prison represents modernity itself, which leads to starting a "carceral society" asking jail authorities to practice proper power, knowledge, discipline, and control within the boundaries of prison and the prisoners while they are in jail. Furthermore, he said that one should study the prison not only focusing on the individual prisoners, but as well as the whole prison. Its role in the society is implementing social order and not devoid of the prisoners’ human rights (Dodge, 1999), which if in a confinement situation and other phases of corrections are expected to lead to “rehabilitation”, “reintegration” and so on as the need for the re-shaping of these prisoners arises. In theory, these concerns are basically subject to different constraints, but all can be attributed to Foucault’s theory. In this lieu, authorities in a prison should bear good knowledge and exemplifies disciplines that open doors to opportunities able to do transformations in person. Queensland prison management should apply this theory in their prisoner rehabilitation policy and practice in order to meet a "rationally" police, educate, socialize and sanitize being of the prisoners. Foucault also advises to put modern theories together with the application of history in system.
Several relating discipline and punish theorists can be applied on Goa, India on the other hand for a theoretical base framework. They are Piers Bierne, who said that the intersection of 2 areas of state activity in penality and statistics can result to positivism in criminology; Nanette Davis said that the development of social science discipline has shown exertions on what is an ideal social betterment that can be promulgated as a theoretical rationale; and David Jones gave meaning to positivistic criminology being related to the results of a utilitarian penal policies application in policing and imprisonment (Neyhouse, 2002). Such theorists can support the hopes for improving the current state of Goa’s Prison Department, wherein the only resources are minimal to answer the basic needs of its prisoners, unlike jail systems in other countries, like Australia and USA that shows prevailing standards of society, prison conditions being usually adequate (Foreign Prisoner Support Service, 1997 - 2006).
Other criminology theorists are Mark Findlay – the method of time-space compression or globalisation has given gains on the essence of crime relationships, where it is comparable to any other significant market force (Findlay, 1999); John Irwin – found in his study in criminology that there is no actual relationship in increases in the imprisonment with the lowering of crime rate through a regression analysis correlating records in imprisonment and crime transformations in every state of America (Irwin, Schiraldi & Ziedenberg, 2000); and Don Weatherburn together with Lucy Snowball conducted an Australian study on a topic of racial bias in sentencing adult offenders, which concluded that Indigenous offenders show longer criminal records over non-Indigenous counterparts (Weatherburn & Snowball, 2007).
Australia Women Prisoners in Townsville, Queensland - The Corrective Services Act 2000 Qld states an account of the purposes in QLD corrective services system, with respect on crime prevention, special needs, rehabilitation, humane containment, supervision, and community safety before to be possibly reintegrated into the community. Such legal application is accounted by the criminological theory, legal codes, at all levels from the State, to Federal governments, to State or regional regulations to the UN and Department of Corrective Services. Moreover, it is an updated version of its Kennedy Review back in 1988. Who are the prisoners of Qld? – Most of the prisoners originate from exceptionally disadvantaged backgrounds, which are basically Indigenous, poor or homeless, chronically under or unemployed and undereducated or illiterate (Walsh, 2006).
India Women Prisoners of Goa - Its jail system suffers from critics that said the current conditions of poverty in Indian society rely on recidivism, due to the jail endowing minimal levels of food, clothing, and shelter. Moreover, India's prisons are really overcrowded. Their Goa prisoners are experiencing a better or worse treatment depending on the details of their crime and economic status. The Prison Act 1894, Transfer of Prisoners Act of 1950 and Prisoners Act of 1900 states that jail officers should practice an efficient administration of the prisoners, who are constituted by the criminological theory, legal codes, at all levels from the State, to Federal governments, to State or regional regulations to the UN(Foreign Prisoner Support Service, 1997 - 2006).
Methodology - This research proposal aims to accomplish its methodology with the means of performing a series of ascertained interviews and qualitative surveys with the both former prisoners and actual prisoner service providers in Goa and Queensland. Together with this, a thorough research on the statistical evidence and information found online and in libraries regarding reported judicial review decisions should take place (Walsh, 2006).
Conclusion - In conclusion, the contribution of knowledge derived from this research proposal will significantly sum up the human rights conditions of Australia’s women prisoners in Townsville Queensland and the India’s women prisoners of Goa. If a prison community security is to be ensured, there will be a substantial transformation of the current rehabilitation system in jails present in the 2 vicinities. Importantly, the only way this can be reached is to ensure that the prisoners entering the prison system are 'corrected' during their detention terms. A commitment of thorough care, gradual release, aftercare and focusing on the special needs of every prisoner groups should be met. Only then, that it can be said that the QLD and Goa prison jails are ensuing international best practice principles.
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