Roles and responsibilities of the persons responsible for health, safety and welfare on a construction site
· Employer - An employer's responsibility is to protect the health safety and welfare of their employees. To do this they will have to control any risks or injuries which could harm anyone, they will do this by creating a risk assessment. The employer will also have to inform the workplace of any risks and hazards which could be harmful. They will then need to instruct and train their employees on how to protect themselves and others from the risk.
· Employee - An employees responsibilities under the HASAWA are to follow the training they have received to protect themselves as well as others health and safety. They also need to cooperate with there employer on health and safety and must report to them if they think inadequate precautions are being taken and resulting in anyone's health and safety put at risk.
· Client - The clients responsibilities under the CDM regulations are to ensure that there employees are competent and well resourced, they are also obliged to take reasonable steps to ensure there are adequate management arrangements for health, safety and welfare at a site. They will also need to ensure every designer and contractors are given pre-construction information.
· The main contractor - The main contractor has general duties under the HASAWA and the CDM Regulations. They must ensure that they have the cooperation of all contractors and must pass any rules that are set in the health and safety plan to them. They have to plan and manage their work so that it is without risks to health and safety. They often will have to prepare a health and safety file and hand it over to the client at the end of the project. HSE must be notified by the main contractor about the work that is being undertaken, the main contractor will then have to display the F10.
· Subcontractors- Subcontractors must be provided with the relevant information and inductions. The principal contractor will ensure this is done. Risk assessments and methods statements will be needed so the work can be coordinated safely.
· Health & Safety Executive (HSE) - HSE covers a range of activities. For example, reviewing regulations, producing research and statistics and enforcing the law. HSE enforces health and safety to prevent death, injury and ill-health.
· Designer - When a designer is designing a project they will be expected to consider all health and safety aspects, this includes how workers can achieve the design safely and how it can be maintained in the future safely. For example, when deciding about the windows they could design the building to have tilt and turn windows therefore the windows can be cleaned from the inside.
Identify three main pieces of health, safety and welfare legislation relevant to the construction and built environment sector and describe the legal duties of employees in terms of such legislation.
CDM Regulations - Research showed that nearly a third of accidents could be traced back to the design stage of a project. The regulations placed duties on designers in the construction industry. Architects must consider the health, safety and welfare of those constructing, maintaining and using the building.
Duties under the CDM Regulations are as follows:
· Check competence and resources of all employees.
· Ensure there are suitable management arrangements for the project welfare facilities.
· Allow sufficient time and resources for all stages.
· Provide pre-construction information to designers and contractors.
· Provide information relating to the health and safety file to the CDM co-ordinator.
· Retain and provide access to the health and safety file.
CDM Coordinator -
· Advise and assist the client with their duties.
· Notifies HSE
· Co-ordinate health and safety aspects of design work and cooperate with others involved with the project
· Conduct good communication between client, designers and contractors.
· Identify, collect and pass on pre-construction information.
· Prepare and update health and safety file.
· Eliminate hazards and reduce risks during design.
· Provide information about remaining risks.
· Check client is aware of duties and CDM co-ordinator has been appointed.
· Provide any information needed for the health and safety file.
Principal Contractors -
· Plan, manage and monitor construction phase in liaison with contractor.
· Give contractors relevant parts of the plan.
· Make sure suitable welfare facilities are provided from the start and maintained throughout the construction phase.
· Check competence of all contractors.
· Ensure all workers have site inductions and any further information and training needed for the work.
· Secure the site.
· Plan, manage and monitor own work and that of workers.
· Train own employees.
· Provide information to their workers.
· Ensure there are adequate welfare facilities to their workers.
· Check client is aware of duties and a CDM co-ordinator has been appointed and HSE notified before starting work.
· Co-operate with principal contractor in planning and managing work, including reasonable directions and site rules.
· Provide any information needed for the health and safety file.
· Inform principal contractor of reportable accidents, diseases and dangerous occurrences.
Everyone on site is expected to co-operate with each other to ensure the health and safety of other construction workers is not at risk. They are also expected to report any obvious risks.
Working at Height Regulations 2005 - The Regulations apply to all work at height where there is a risk of a fall liable to cause personal injury.
As part of the Regulations responsibilities are as follows:
· All work at height is properly planned and organised.
· Those that are involved in work at height are competent
· The risks from working at height must be assessed and appropriate work equipment is selected and used.
· The risks from fragile surfaces must be properly controlled.
· The equipment for work at height is properly inspected and maintained.
Whoever is managing and selecting equipment for working at height must:
· Avoid working at height where they can.
· Use work equipment or other measures to prevent falls where they cannot avoid working at height.
· Where they cannot eliminate the risk of a fall, use work equipment or other measures to minimise the distance and consequences of a fall should one occur.
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HASAWA) - The general duties of employers and their employees are;
· The provision and maintenance of plant and systems of work that are safe and without risks to health
· To ensure that there is no risks to health whilst using/handling storage and transport
· To ensure that the training and supervision that is necessary is given
· To ensure there is a safe access and egress from the site.
· To ensure there is adequate facilities for welfare at work.
· To prepare health and safety file and to keep all employees notified of any revision of it.
· To cooperate with each other to help promote and develop health and safety
The general duties of employees are to take care of the health and safety of themselves and of other people who may be affected by their work.
Explain how the members of the building team interact in terms of their health, safety and welfare roles and responsibilities.
The client will appoint a CDM coordinator. The CDM coordinator will then;
· Advise the client on compliance with regulations. It is their job to make sure that the client is fully aware of all regulations and to make sure that the client follows them.
· See that the health and safety file is prepared. The principle contractor will update this file as the project develops.
· See that the health and safety plan is prepared. This will then become the principle contractors responsibility as they will make sure contractors comply with these rules,
· See that HSE is notified of contract start date. The HSE must be notified of all projects.
· Review, amend or add to the health and safety file. Once the file is done the client will have to keep the health and safety file and ensure it is kept available.
· See that the designers cooperate and comply and that designs avoid foreseeable risks and includes health and safety information.
· See that the health and safety file is delivered to the client at the end of the project.
The client, after a discussion with the architect and CDM Coordinator, will appoint a competent principle contractor. The principle contractor will;
· Provide information for health and safety plan to the CDM coordinator. This is to enable that the health and safety file can be prepared.
· Develop, update and comply with health and safety file. They will also ensure that all other contractors comply with the health and safety file.
· See that the notification which is an F10 form is displayed. This will be displayed somewhere where all employees and visitors will see it. This is to show that the HSE has been notified of the project
· Keep unauthorised persons off site. They will have to make sure that there is appropriate security and fencing to make sure that unauthorised persons are aware that it is a site and that they cannot access it easily.
· See that contractors cooperate and comply with health and safety plan rules. They will do this by holding toolbox talks to provide information to other contractors.
The designer will ensure client is aware of regulations and guidance. The CDM coordinator will ensure that the designers avoid foreseeable risks.
The client must make sure that Health and Safety file is kept available. This is for future reference for when the building is in need of refurbishment. It raises awareness of any objects or hazards that could cause problems.
Other contractors must provide information. Comply with health and safety plan and cooperate with principal contractor.
If the same accident keeps occurring then a toolbox talk may be held to try and establish what the cause is and how to prevent it
The HSE is there to advise and guide all employers and employees to ensure they provide a safe environment to work in.
Building Construction Handbook, 2008, Chudley & Greeno