The Amo Model Theoritical Framework Commerce Essay
Every organization in a public or private sector, struggle for survival and this survival can be gotten if there is a motivated workforce to ensure the organization's objectives are met. Most organizations tend to neglect and ignore the up-keep of their employees which might affect employee performance and organizational productivity. There are complaints about low performance and productivity in most organizations in Nigeria.
Researchers like Akinyele (2010) are of the opinion that low performance and productivity in most organizations in Nigeria is caused by the organizations where they operate. Additionally, Akinyele (2010) is of the opinion that about 80% of low productivity and performance is caused by the work environment of the organization and so, suggests that when the environment of an organization is conducive, it confirms that the well-being of the employees will be improved and would lead to higher productivity for the organization (Akinyele, 2007).
Organizations find it difficult to perform up to standard in order to meet their objectives due to the fact that there is low performance and productivity. The reason for low organizational performance and productivity in Nigeria according to Ahiauzu (1999) is that, employees perform better when they are managing their own businesses other than working in an organization. With this, they end up coming late to work, show little or no creativity and are slow in accepting change. This indicates that there is a missing factor which motivates employees that is not present. Also, there are other issues that affect performance and productivity in some organization's In Nigeria which relates to cultural background, belief system and web of kingship. Again, Keller (2006) suggests that when you give your employees the best, they in turn give it back to the organization. For example, in relation to the organization, there have been a clear case of low performance because of its managerial style and leadership calamity, the way funds are managed and this is affecting the performance of the employees and the organization (Babalola, 2012). Line managers are actively responsible for the well-being and welfare of their employees Boxall and Purcell (2003) because they are the most important assets of an organization (Armstrong 2012).
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When employees feel they are not working for themselves and are not motivated in any way, they tend to be disengaged and disconnected with the work and its environment especially when they notice they are neglected by their employers and line managers. For improving the well-being and performance of employees, Boxall and Purcell (2003) as illustrated in the AMO model below suggest that for effective employee and organizational performance, line managers should be able to present, apply, direct and monitor all human resource activities to help improve organizational and employee performance.
THE AMO MODEL THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
Most organizations tend to neglect the well-being of their employees and due to this, they end up not performing well which in turn affects the performance of the organization. This, can be caused by either the managerial style of the line managers, not having a conducive work environment or even the employees themselves. The AMO model is an illustration of how employees can be motivated by the line managers using the HR policies and practices involved so as to enhance performance and well-being. The term AMO means A=Ability, M=Motivation, O= opportunity. Ability refers to the practices and policies that ensure the employees in an organization get the best and are prepared with the skills to take on any job in the organization, with the assumption that jobs would be challenging. Organizations should ensure that their employees have the necessary skills to be able to use their discretionary practice whereby they are able to participate with minimum supervision. This is why Huselid (1995) and Appelbaum et al., (2000) state that organizations must ensure accurate recruitment and selection process to recruit capable and skilled workers and also ensure necessary training. In order for employees to use their discretionary practice, they need to be motivated with either an extrinsic, intrinsic or trust factor (Appelbaum et al., 2000). Extrinsic this can be financial such as performance pay or commission, incentive pay. Intrinsic pay comes from inner satisfaction and finally, when an organization can enable an environment that is trustworthy and encouraging, then employee's feel valued and wanted. If all these motivational factors are absent, then employees tend to be absent or likely leave the job. The opportunity to be involved in the decision-making process in an organization gives employees the sense of involvement, engagement and enhances well-being (Appelbaum et al., 2000). According to Wood and Wall (2007), Boxall and Macky (2009) and Appelbaum et al., (2000) , it is the distinguishing feature that differentiates High performance work practices whereby the decision making process should be de-centralized and shared rather than the control of hierarchy. According to Wood and Wall (2007), there are different ways in which employees should be given the opportunity and chance to be involved either being in a self-managed team or the opportunity for their voice to be heard.
RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT
It is important to consider the organization used in this research work. In 2004, FIFA (The Federation Internationale De Football Association) the world football governing body recommended the Nigerian Football Association (NFA) to create an avenue for the establishment of the Nigerian Football League (NFL) which would be an independent body but also would still be a member of the NFA. The processes and procedures of acquiring an office including the office of the chairman and vice chairman, board members and other departments was then put in place in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. In 2006, the NFL was then in search of sponsors since it is operating as a non-profit making organization but to no avail due to the fact that it lacked legal backup. It was reported to the NFA and the Ministry of Sports and later, the NFL was granted their license to become a corporate body and was immediately incorporated as a Limited Liability Company in April 2006. The title sponsor immediately after the incorporation was awarded to Nigeria's biggest telecommunication company for four years and then, the NFL was changed to NPL (Nigerian Premier League).
The Nigerian Premier League (NPL) consists of 40 staff and 20 premier league clubs that is spread all over Nigeria and it is in line with the international best practice for the benefit of its stakeholders. Due to the fact that the football body (NPL) is a non-profit making organization, there might be significant impact on the well-being of its workforce having in mind that they are working for an organization that generates no profit and how they are motivated would be at stake unlike a profit making organization whereby the desire of the organization is to make profit. In a country like Nigeria where most of the workforce work not for the experience but for the money would also affect organizations that are non-profit making like the NPL. As money is known to be an extrinsic motivational factor in Herzberg 2 factor theory and by paraventure the company experiences a downturn in finance and it is not able to meet the financial expectation of its workforce, productivity will fall to its minimum as employee performance will be reduced due to lack of no financial benefit or extrinsic motivation. In Nigeria, most organizations are of the opinion that since employees work for the money and not the experience, it should be seriously considered by the line managers so as to create ways to intrinsically motivate the employees. This is why the purpose of this research would benefit the Nigerian Premier League on how to motivate the employees thereby using the elements from the AMO Model by Purcell et. al., (2003) mentioned in this study that it is necessary to intrinsically motivate the workforce, which in turn can lead to career progression. The NPL is faced with a challenge which is now affecting the well-being and performance of the employees (For example, absenteeism, low performance, finance) and as well, the organization (Babalola, 2012). In this case, it can be caused by lack of engaging the employees using the human resource practices mentioned in the Black Box, the managerial style of the managers, cultural differences which can generate conflict Aluko (2003) lack of finance and again, remember they are working for the only thing that motivates them which is the money and it is not available.
CONCEPT OF WELL-BEING
This essay is an example of a student's work
Well being according to Ryan and Deci (2000) is where the employee is fully engaged (Committed), fully functioning (Active) and focuses on self-actualization (Realization of Potentials). CIPD (2006) defines well-being as creating a good working environment to promote the employee state of mind that allows the employee to develop and attain the full ability to perform for the benefit of the organization. Having this in mind, the managerial procedures in organizations tend to have an impact on the workforce of an organization because of the way they are followed and in turn can have an effect on the performance outcome of the organization and the workforce AMO Model Purcell et al. (2003) using the HR practices.
Researchers suggest here that there may be a significant correlation between Human Resource management and the performance outcome of the organization (Becker and Gerhard 1996; Huselid 1995). However, well-being is part of the human resource process and its relationship has been ignored thereby affecting organizational performance. According to Pfeffer (1998), the problem facing human resource management should not be, having the idea of how HRM practices enhance the outcome of an organization but instead understanding how it affects employee well-being, performance and engagement which if present increases productivity.
In the light of this research, employee well-being and performance would be discussed using human resource practices, such as organizational commitment, training and development, ability and skills, motivation and job satisfaction and discretionary behavior, which help to promote a good work life balance in an organization (The AMO Model, See figure 1.1)
Purcell et al., (2003).
From the above model, the Human Resource practices might influence employee well-being if taking into consideration and can continuously develop and increase performance and productivity. If the management of any organization can actually generate a good working environment, the workforce would in turn respond with high motivation and satisfaction which can help the company attain high performance and enhance productivity.
Despite the fact that organizations vary, ways of motivation also vary. The aim of most organizations is to make profit in one way or the other be it a profit making organization or non-profit making organization but most non-profit making organizations, spend more and don't really make a profit but this can be achieved if only organizations take into consideration the well-being of their employees thereby using the HR elements mentioned by Purcell et al., (2003) to improve well-being and performance.
CONCEPT OF PERFORMANCE
Performance according to Stoner (2002) is vital to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization, which shows how well the organization's objectives are achieved. Performance in an organization can be negatively impacted upon by different factors which can hinder the progress of the organization. In Nigeria, the impact of organizational performance can be caused by poor communication Inedegbor et al., (2012), culture Aluko (2003) and possibly can be caused by the external environment.
IOA Model for Organizational Performance.
The framework above illustrates an organization's performance which can have different dimensions that consists of the organization's importance, financial stability, and effectiveness of the organization, how efficient the organization is and how well they can react to change from its internal and external environment. It also illustrates that the performance of an organization should be linked to how motivated the organization might be and that resources like finance, technology, and workforce can drastically affect the performance of an organization. Drawing from the research organization (NPL), it indicates that the organization suffers low performance because it lacks the only thing that motivates the employees leading to absenteeism and de-motivation.
RESEARCH STUDY AIM
This research aims to examine the ability of the AMO Model by Purcell et al., (2003) to explain employee well-being and performance to enhance productivity in the Nigerian Premier League.
RESEARCH STUDY OBJECTIVES
In order to carry out this research study properly, there are objectives outlined to achieve the aim of this study. The objectives are:
To assess the levels of skills/ability, motivation and incentives and opportunity to participate, measure levels of training and development, ability and skills, organizational commitment, and identify discretionary behaviour and performance.
To identify significant relationships between these variables
To evaluate the employee perceptions of conditions of service and work in relation to AMO to participate in the Nigerian Premier League.
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Recommendations and conclusions based on my findings.
RATIONAL FOR THE STUDY
To achieve a positive outcome in an organization, the well-being of employees needs to be taken into consideration because they are seen as the most valuable assets of an organization Armstrong (2008) and the way they are managed has a significant impact on the organization's performance.
The duty of the HR is to administer policies and practices used by line managers to engage employees, this is why they are of great importance in any organization despite this long contention between HRM and the organizational performance Guest (2011) due to the fact that regulations and procedures of the HRM is in connection to a recent act in strategy (Brockbank and Ulrich 2005).
The aim of this research is to better understand well-being and performance of employees to enhance productivity in organizations especially those facing difficulties like low performance and high turnover, using the AMO Model (Black Box) by (Purcell et al., 2003). The research would in turn have a positive impact on the workforce and organization if the well-being and performance of the workforce are seriously taking into consideration.
For the purpose of this study, the concept of employee well being is measured using training and development, ability and skills, organizational commitment, discretionary behavior and it is an attempt to close the gap between employee well-being and performance with the performance of the organization thereby explaining a bit more about the importance of HRM practices which promotes employee well-being at work and is linked to organizational performance.
The study of this research on employee well-being and performance in the Nigerian Premier League would be important to the organization because it will enable the organization to understand better the concept of employee well-being and performance and how it can be managed to enhance productivity inside and outside the organization. According to Bujai, Cottini and Nielsen (2008), having an insight on the impact of employee well-being and performance in an organization with regards to engagement and other HR Practices is important in having a working environment that is productive.
In order to build a productive workforce, the well-being and performance of the organization either large or small organization should be taking into consideration because most organizations feel its time and money consuming and end up abandoning their workforce. Most managers pay less attention to their workforce and this on the other hand affects the performance and well-being of the organization. This is why it is suggested by Purcell et al., (2003) in the black box (AMO Model) that managers should be careful with the way they manage their workforce. The following chapter illustrates more on the concept of well-being and performance by different authors and why it is important that employers should focus more on their employees to enhance productivity.
DEFINITION OF WELL-BEING
Well-being is a vast concept and has been defined and seen differently by various authors, organizations and how it should be managed is entirely up to the managers of the organization (AMO Model).
The CCMD (2002) describes well-being as nurturing a good state of mind that helps the employee to have a good sense of purpose, feelings and fulfillment that is alert and open to new experiences. The theory of well-being by Waterman (1993) indicates that it is way above happiness but the actualization of human potentials or abilities which helps in fulfilling the true nature of an employee.
There is this belief that well-being is a psychological state which Ryan and Deci (2000) argues that it is at its best when an employee is fully functioning, fully engaged and shows self actualization and vitality. This has been termed as Eudaimonic well-being. Though there is another form of well-being which is Hedonic well being, this is the subjective well-being that involves life satisfaction, the presence of positive mood and absence of negative mood.
Employee well-being has been a great issue and concern in the minds of employers which they believe now is affecting the performance of the workforce. Researchers have carried out a research on human resource practices and the well-being of employers.
Employee well-being has been linked to employee engagement because of its similarities and for as long as there is engagement in the workforce, there would be increased well-being and performance. In contrast, Robertson and Cooper (2010) state that employee well-being is basically different to employee engagement and describes employee engagement as the positive behavior of employees that indicate there is an uninterrupted attention giving to the organization by the employees.
According to Watson (2010) employee well-being can retain or destroy the engagement level and performance in an organization which shows the connection between engagement and well-being. It further states that employee engagement and well-being either work in isolation or work together. To explain this further, see diagram 1 below.
The above diagram explains that when employee well-being and engagement strongly work together, there would be sustained performance, but when engagement and well-being work in isolation, there would be defaults in the organization's performance. An example is that organization's that are finding it difficult to be at their best, their employees try hard to get things working for the organization. Therefore, forfeiting their personal life issues for the organization, may only take the organization for a short period of time which is not going to be sustainable. However, this would lead to employee burnout and disengagement where turnover and under-performance becomes the agenda of the organization (Maslach and Leiter 2008).
An article by Gallup (2012), suggests that employee well-being has a significant impact on the bottom line of an organization. This is the reason organizations are engineering new strategies for gaining a sustained workforce. In as much as an organization is active, it is already in the business of managing employee well-being.
Employee engagement which helps improve well-being, is a vital aspect of an employee to achieve its objectives and is another way of motivating employees to enhance internal and external performance index (CIPD 2011). Employee engagement has been defined by different authors, still, it cannot be managed (Ferguson 2007). The world is changing and ways to meet up with the demands of the environment which Porter (1987) suggests that it would surely occur is the utmost priority of most big and small organizations despite the industry or sector.
According to Cooper and Robertson (2001), employee well-being when in the positive, is an advantage to any organization which indicates that the organization's workforce is healthy. For an organization to be healthy, it means that it fits to survive in the competitive environment where it operates. Currie (2001) is of the opinion that if organizations want to be competitive and be positively sustained in the environment; it must keep the health and well-being of its employees as its core which is vital for performance enhancement, future survival and development of any organization. Moreover, from an organization's point of view, the positive correlation between well-being and performance of the workforce, has been considered by Wright and Cropanzano (2004) and according to Samman (2007), Page and Vellla-Broadrick (2009), it has been reviewed that the importance of well-being and its management and measurement has puzzled researchers. Ortiz (2006) agrees with Armstrong (2008) that employees are assets of an organization while Hermanson (1964) described human assets so as to measure and quantify the value of the workforce. Additionally, Roselender et al., (2006) supports the argument that the well being of an employee when fit is an organizational asset.
DETERMINANTS OF WELL-BEING (GENERAL)
The concept of employee well-being by Macey and Schneider, (2009); Macleod and Brady, (2008); Bakker et al. (2008) states that employee well-being in recent times both in practice and in research has been creating a lot of interest in the minds of managers. Though employee well-being has been defined differently by different authors, and there are determinants that impact on well-being. According to an article by Watson (2010), employee well-being can be seen as a physical, psychological and social health of an individual. All these must be complete in an employee and this is why the management of many organizations is so concerned about the well-being of their employees because it is of great benefit to the organization and employees. For the workforce, they would feel a sense of balance between their lives at work, at home and for the organization, high level of sustainability and engagement which will reduce turnover (Watson 2010). In essence, its advantage is all about having the workforce on the job and imputing high level of sustained engagement.
Work is a significant part of an individual's life and as such, employee engagement and well-being at work are important concepts. Employee well-being, engagement and performance are important aspect of organizational development, as engaged employees are both cognitively and emotionally connected to their work and workplace (Harter and Blacksmith, 2010). The relationship between employee characteristics and business outcomes is assumed to exist, yet the empirical research is limited. For instance engaged employees consistently produce at high levels Moore (2005) yet the unique contribution of employee engagement is yet to be fully revealed. This paper attempts to fill that gap.
According to Gallup (2012), organizations that strive hard to succeed in an environment, are implementing new ways for achieving sustainable competitive advantage which is employee well-being because it impacts on the performance of the organization. There are various determinants of well-being. In general, there are different factors that can influence well-being.
With reference to the definition of well-being by different authors which in summary states that without well-being, there is a significant impact on the organization's performance or the workforce, many organizations tend to neglect this concept due to the fact that they think about the financial aspect of engaging the employee.
Researchers also have claimed that employee engagement is different from work engagement .Work engagement is seen as a positive, fulfilling work related state of mind characterized by dedication, absorption and vigor (Schaufeli et al 2002, pg. 74). Recent research believes that dedication and vigor are the main characteristics of engagement. Vigor can be seen as that high level of energy and mental resilience while working and persistence in the face of challenges ( Dulagi, 2012). Dedication can be seen as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride and challenge. Employee well-being according to Ryan and Deci (2001) believes that well-being is not best captured by hedonic conceptions of happiness alone. Instead, SDT also employs the concept of eudemonia well-being which is defined as vital, full and as a complimentary approach. Self determination theory is an organismic psychology (Ryan, 1985) one of a part of holistic psychological theories including Jean Piaget and Carl Rogers and thus assumes that people are active organisms with inherent and deeply evolved tendencies toward psychological growth and development. This can be seen clearly in the phenomenon of intrinsic motivation- the natural tendency manifest from birth to seek out challenges, novelty and opportunities to learn.
Well-being according to Wright (2005) is a universal term that is mostly used when relating to emotions of individuals and research has consistently shown the importance associated with how employee well-being and job performance of an organization is measured (Wright et al., 2007). According to Wright and Cropanzano (2000), people with sophisticated psychological well-being at work are more prolific than people with ill-psychological well-being. Nonetheless, according to Harter et al., (2002); Schaufeli et al., (2006), it cannot be seen as a vital aspect of engaging an employee.
In synergy, Schaufeli et al, (2002); Macey et al. (2009); Mann, (2011); Bakker and Bal, (2010) considers that well-being involves not only the psychological condition of employees due to the fact that Deci and Ryan (2000) sees as the Eudiamonic sensation of employees but also the behavior of employees. In addition, the CIPD (2011) believes that well-being consists of 3 vital units which include reasoning, sentiments and interim. However, it is being conflicted by its problems or difficulties.
EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING AND SDT (SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY)
In the light of this theory (SDT), Fernet et al., (2012) indicates that the confusion from employees and management attitudes impacts on the self-efficacy of the employees and their motivation to participate.
Self-determination theory (SDT) involves a set of related theories that explain human behavior by defining different types of motivation that an individual may engage in for a task or set of activities (Deci and Ryan, 1985). Specifically, Self-determination theory consists of 3 vital psychological needs which should be evident for psychological growth. They are as follows: aptitude, independence and kinship.
Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (2002).
According to the above diagram, Self-determination theory consists of a set of theories mentioned above which is associated with the behaviour of individuals and how they are motivated. It also consists of the psychological needs that when satisfied gives the working environment a sense of intrinsic motivation and human fulfilment (Deci and Ryan, 1985). In essence, the satisfaction of these needs is beneficial for high human functioning (Deci and Ryan, 2000).
In an organizational context, the desire for these psychological needs is important. The need for aptitude signifies that the individual is feeling effective in the environment which allows the individual to express its exceptional capabilities (Ryan and Deci 2002, Deci and Ryan, 2000). According to Deci and Ryan (2000), Deci and Ryan (2011), Deci and Ryan (2002), the need for independence is when there is the feeling to act with the desire from within so as to feel psychologically free. Lastly, the need for kinship relates to when the individual feels the sense of belonging in the environment (Ryan and Deci 2002; Van den Broeck et al., 2008).
The degree which indicates that if the construct of employee engagement is distended to include the psychological well-being of employees, it shows there would be improved business outcomes. This is why Wright et al, (2007); Danna and Griffin, (1999) suggest that there should be an impact of psychological well-being on productivity and performance if the organization wants to survive.
With reference to this study, there is evidence that there is a correlation between the three psychological needs, the employees in general Deci and Ryan, (2000), Baars et al., (2004), well-being that is work-related for example, organizational commitment, discretionary behavior, motivation and job satisfaction which is essential to enhance productivity and performance in an organization.
DETERMINANTS OF WELL-BEING AT WORK
In an organizational context, the term employee well-being according to Cooper and Robertson (2001) impacts on the performance of the employee and can lead to high productivity or outcome which is an added advantage to organizations that encourages a workforce that is healthy. For an organization to be active and healthy, it then shows that it can survive in its environment or industry where it operates because for an organization to be able to survive in its sector, it is unavoidable to ignore promoting the well-being and performance of its employees which in this case is vital to increase employee performance and this can lead to future organizational development (Currie 2001). In line with this research topic, when employee well-being is introduced into any organization, it is likely to change the environment and pave way for innovation which can create positive organizational performance especially for organizations that are under-performing. Research has shown that it took ages for organizations to create a relationship that has to do with employment due to the fact that the well-being of an employee is seen as their responsibility (Guest 2002; Cooper and Robertson 2001). According to a survey by WERS (2004), it purports that the ability of employees in their work environment has been a disturbing research of interest to concerned employers with regards employment relations (Kersley et al., 2006). The following determinants of well-being at work are listed and discussed below:
The main aim that differentiates HRM from other managerial roles is that the organization's commitment is the main reason why they exist, which according to Guest (1998) is the core purpose of the human resource management. Organizational commitment has been defined by different authors which makes its definition versatile. Some researchers see organizational commitment as the behavior of individuals because they give their best to ensure the organization achieve its purpose (Becker 1960; Gechman and Weiner, 1977). Others like March and Simon (1958) see it as the attitude of the individual whereby they engage themselves to the organization so as to get rewards and incentives from the organization. Meanwhile, Cook and Wall (1980) refer to organizational commitment as the individual's mood in relation to its employing organization which is related to achieving the aims and objectives of the organization. In the distant past, organizations paid little or no attention to well-being and performance of employees, making them feel de-motivated, but organizations like Cadbury Family and Lever Brothers made sure that well-being and performance of employees were their main aim which made them generate HR practices that helped enhance employee performance and well-being (Newell 2002). In comparison, Currie (2001) is of the belief that yes, most employers were in favor of employee well-being and performance but worried about the financial aspect. According to Armstrong (2008), employees are the most important asset of any organization no matter the circumstance and must be engaged and valued at all times, in addition the McGregor X and Y theory (1961) states that motivating the employee in the organization should be important in order to improve performance because they help in promoting the organization towards achieving its aims and objectives. In order to assess the level of organizational commitment in the Nigerian Premier League, it can be measured which will be done during the analysis.
Training and Development
Most organizations lack the skills to relate with their workers, which mean they tend to ignore the most important part of their business which is the employees. As organizations try hard to measure up with other competitors in the same environment, they must prove that they have the drive, experience, motivation of the employees to compete. According to Goldstein and Ford (2002), training is the efficient approach in relation to learning and development so as to gain ideas, experience and enhance the performance of the workforce and the organization. Vemic (2007) argues that the training and development of the workforce do not really apply to only gaining new ideas and experience but also to introduce the workforce to change, assist the workforce to also change their behavior and encourage the workforce to make decisions in the organization which on the other hand makes them feel valued and motivated. Armstrong (2008) supports Vemic (2007) which he states that employees are the most important asset of an organization and if they are not motivated and also allowed the opportunity to show their ability, employee turnover would increase. Furthermore, to solve the problem of staff turnover and de-motivation, the performance in the organization needs to be increased and this is why, training and development is essential thereby helping to acquire new skills (Hill and Lent 2006; Hughes & Satterfield 2007). This would act as a predecessor in the performance of the job (Kraiger 2002). Also, during the analysis, the level of training and development administered in the Nigerian Premier League for improvement would be known.
Ability and Skills
Heneman and Judge (2003), shows evidence that the ability of an individual impact strongly on the performance of the individual. Ability can be seen as the practice that allows employees who are experienced with the necessary skills needed to undertake the jobs with a view that the jobs will be highly skilled. According to Huselid, (1995); Appelbaum et al., (2000), there are 2 main processes in which organizations can ensure that the suitability of their employees are recruited and the process of selecting them for the right role is done properly.
Discretionary Behaviour and Performance
Organizations that are involved in decision making has hurled from telling their employees what to do which brings in discretionary behaviour and it promotes excellence due to the fact that its critically vital for the success of any organization. Mathematically, it is seen as Discretionary Behaviour = Ability X Motivation X Opportunity (AMO) which automatically promotes well-being. Purcell et al (2003) is of the notion that when there is commitment and motivation, there is discretionary behaviour. This is to say that employees act in such a way that they are satisfied with their jobs and under little or no supervision from their line managers or superiors. Research has revealed that the decisions of line managers and how they implement, enact, control and lead their employees, impacts positively or negatively on them which form the basis of how they relate with customers. Furthermore, Purcell et al (2003) in understanding the link between people and performance argues that employee discretion that goes the extra mile is linked to managerial discretion by managers.
HRM PRACTICES THAT MIGHT SUPPORT THIS.
The HRM practices that might support the well-being of an organization's workforce are as follows: Employee involvement, performance compensation, proper training, learning and development.
When an employee feels involved in the activities going on in the organization, then it is accepted that these employees would not want to leave the organization. Marchington and Wilkinson (2005), states that managers should give employees the opportunity to get involved in the organization, open communication about issues going on in the organization, and allow some form of decisions to be made by the employees. With this, they would feel involved and would not want to leave the organization.
Proper training, learning and development
According to Armstrong (2008), employees are the most valuable assets of an organization and the way they are managed impact on the performance of the organization (AMO Model). This is why Barney (2003) suggests that after recruitment and selection, organizations should ensure their employees are appointed in the right role, so that when necessary training and development is carried out, they would have an idea of what is going on in that particular aspect they are trained for.
In some organizations, they compensate their workforce after a job well done. This is because it would boost the employee's working spirit and also would make other employees to do well and would engage them in carrying out their jobs properly.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING AND PERFORMANCE
Gallup (2012) listed 5 different areas of well-being that can affect performance which are: career well-being, social well-being, financial well-being, physical well-being and community well-being. All these in one way or the other affects each other and in turn affects performance because they do not work in isolation. Contrary to these elements mentioned above, Grawitch (2010) suggests that mental well-being should have been included with all 5 mentioned above because without any of the 5 mentioned above, the mental well-being of an individual would be in jeopardy which would affect organizational performance.
Research has confirmed that well-being and engagement, leads to higher performance Cooper and Robertson (2008), and states that with well-being and engagement in an organization, there would be high financial performance, high customer satisfaction and employee retention. Cooper and Robertson (2008) gathered together data of about 80,000 using ASSET, to measure psychological engagement and well-being of employees. ASSET is used while measuring the psychological well-being and engagement of employees and it also measures motivation and productivity levels due to the fact that it involves engagement and psychological well-being. This analysis is focused on the factors that bring together employee productivity and engagement. To conclude, the aim of this analysis is to show that the engagement of employees is linked to productivity. It was also found that employee engagement and psychological well-being put together indicates that there would be an increase in productivity. Other researchers like Salanova et al;, (2005) argue that employee well-being is linked to customer satisfaction in the organization, Xanthopoulou et al;,(2009) argue there is a link between employee well-being/engagement on the financial aspect of an organization. In all, well being and engagement, affects the overall performance of the organization this is why Nahrgang et al; (2011) suggest that without a good working environment, there would be no organizational performance. Therefore, it is advisable for the line managers of an organization to be conscious and cautious of how they manage their employees. This according to Schuster (1998) suggests that there should be an existing vital correlation between the well-being of the workforce and the performance of the organization. Before employee well-being can be introduced into the organization, there should be an overview that it would bring change into the organization and would create room for positive HR practices that would be able to re-instate the performance of the organization. In this case, the performance of the employees and the organization would be assured.
The diagram above shows 2 categories of PWB which suggests that with PWB(sense of purpose) and with PWB (psychological health), there would be an increased level of productivity. It was also found that the engagement of employees is linked with psychological well-being and it is a crucial instrument for attaining high levels of engagement.
According to Welbourne (2007), the importance of introducing a good working environment will inspire and drive engagement in employees using the HR elements mentioned above from the AMO Model which will boost their well-being and performance. In contrast, it is not solely the obligation of employers to devise a room for engagement but the employees as well because the desire of engagement comes from them and it is also a way to get involved and communicate with colleagues. On the other hand, Deming (1982) argues that it is not the fault of the employees at times but the way the organization is organized. In addition, Gibbs (2008) states that poor performance comes from the way the organization operates that is organizational systems do get in the way of employees. Mann (2011) states that if the system of the organization does not get in the way of employees, it will enhance decision making for employees to make and Perrin (2006) suggests that it will enable the employees feel important and valued which in turn would be an added advantage to the organization when it is being proven or developed.
According to Hakanen et al (2006), demands for the job and resources available influences employee engagement and this is why it has been evaluated by the JD-R model which indicates that when there is no job resource available, there would be poor or low engagement and if the job is highly demanding, employees would be stressed. This is why Crawford et al (2010) argues that job demands are the obstacles and trials that employees would go through due to the fact that engagement is in process which cuts across changes in the organization and emotional disorder. So therefore, according to Bakker et al, (2005); Barnett and McMormick (2011) barriers and confusion for employees and when there is a poor working environment would affect engagement.
In the light of this research study which concerns a non-profit making organization (Nigerian Premier League), where money is generated from sponsors compared to profit making organizations, the form of employee motivation to enhance well-being and performance, would be different. Looking at it again from the country's point of view (Nigeria), where most people work for the money and not for the experience, there would be a slight default if the finance to motivate employees is in absentia. The aim of this research study, would enable the Nigerian Premier League to be able to enhance their employees using the HR elements mentioned in this research work and this is why Fernet et al (2008) argued that the key in attaining utmost engagement in employees comes from the internal drive of the organization and probably the employers themselves.
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
This research aims to examine the ability of the AMO Model by Purcell et al., (2003) which is Ability, Motivation and Opportunity, in order to explain employee well-being and performance in an Organization. The objectives of this research include:
To assess the levels of skills/ability, motivation and incentives and opportunity to participate, measure level of training and development, ability and skills, organizational commitment, and identify discretionary behaviour and performance.
To identify significant relationships between these variables
To evaluate the employee perceptions of conditions of service and work in relation to AMO to participate in the organization.
Recommendations and conclusions based on my findings.
Research Philosophy and Approach
The positivist approach has been used because it facilitates the act of describing the research phenomenon, support quantitative research, examine the correlation between the variables and closely inspect the cause and impact of the research study on the organization (Thompson 1998). In addition, the positivist approach entails standard scientific investigation, thereby gathering systematic and quantitative data in a scientific routine in as much as the data can be put into extrapolative codes (Burns 2000). The power of the positivist approach supports the use of a deductive procedure and it positions its capacity to rheostat the data through sampling and design thereby sustaining the accuracy through quantitative measurement (Burns 2000).
Quantitative research is the gathering of information that typically involves larger, more representative respondent samples and the numerical calculation of results (Parasuraman et al., 2007). It also seeks numerically different views and opinion of people. However, the idea behind the use of quantitative data is the superiority of data that can be obtained. This report deals with people's attitude and perception about their jobs and feelings.
This research project takes a positivist philosophy in order to analyze the study under which it takes a deductive approach which will also be cross-sectional. This would be used to gather perceptions of the study and perhaps, provide ways of improvement if any (Creswell 2009).
Bell and Brayman (2007) criticized the inductive approach due to the fact that it lacks the necessary theory on which this study is carried but it is still used in this study because it is exploratory as it seeks to find out the importance of employee well-being and performance thereby giving the room for different options in understanding the issue on the ground (Myers, 2009).
In order to have an absolute understanding of the key word in this study which is employee well-being and performance, a primary and secondary data would be used which according to Blackburn and Curran (2001) would be through the use of questionnaires. Although the use of questionnaires has been criticized for being unreliable and has its limitations which argue that it is unsuitable for some people, without personal involvement, there would be low responses and misunderstanding if any, cannot be corrected. However, the opinion of using questionnaires to collect data is because it will enable the researcher target a large number of people, respondents can be widely reached or dispersed in different locations, easy to get information quickly from people. Most importantly, it is relatively easy to analyze when using numeric data.
The population sample in this research study is the staff of Nigeria Premier League. This sample aims to target the employees of the Nigerian Premier League and how well they are motivated because the scenario of this research corner around the practices and policies administered by the HR in accordance with the line managers to improve well-being and performance of employees. The questions being asked in the questionnaires were closed-ended derived from the research objectives and has a total of 20 questions which were structured properly to address the information needed for this particular study and they were structured in line with some HR activities such as commitment, motivation and job satisfaction, training and development, the use of discretionary behavior, the use of ability and skills and what the HR department of the organization should assist its organization in achieving.
Questionnaires have been adopted here because it is an important tool when writing a research work and it can be used for analysis and evaluation i.e. generalized samples in order to effectively analyze numeric data, it would be done using a triangulation method to increase the credibility and validity of the results of this research (Saunders et al., 2003). Based on the measurements, questionnaires would be used and this is because AMO variables and employee perception are involved. The justification for using questionnaires is due to the fact that it is descriptive and exploratory (Saunders et al., (2000). In addition, it is easy to get straight forward answers and responses can be coded.
Sampling and Sample Selection
The method of collecting information from a small or large group of people is called sampling (Gates and McDaniel, 2005). In the light of this research work, a list of the population from which are to be sampled can be chosen (Gates, 2005). Probability and non-probability are 2 aspects of sampling. The most suitable sample for this research is the non-probability sample because it is cost effective, it is easy to use, and it is quick and convenient and if properly chosen, the results would be sound and accurate. Though it has its disadvantage where the measurement of its certainty is unknown but it is backed with the basic supporting structure i.e. the research approach and strategy because they increase the authenticity and consistency of this research.
Quantitative data analysis can be descriptive and inferential (Wheeler, 2002). In the light of this research, inferential statistics would be the appropriate method of putting together larger amount of data (Gates and McDaniel, 2005). Therefore, inferential statistics i.e. correlations and regression analysis is used to represent data gathered from the survey. Taking a quantitative approach to analyzing the information transcribed from the questionnaire is paramount and data collected would be used to understand themes, pattern and relationships in regard to the research objectives. After transcription, important themes will be coded and made easy for people to understand e.g. employee well-being could be EWB, training and development could be T.D, ability and skills could be A.S, organizational commitment could be O.C and discretionary behaviour could be D.B. After this is done, results will be carefully outlined to show the outcome of the research.
Researchers in one way or the other, usually face ethical issues. In this research project, compulsory procedures and processes were followed so as to show the authenticity and consistency to the participants that their confidentiality is assured. To show ethical acceptance, there must be an informed consent from the organization. However, involved participants were made known about the scenario and purpose of this research and given the opportunity to pull back if need be at any time before issuing out their consent to participate in this research and were assured of their information to be kept safe.
CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS (RESULTS AND DISCUSSION)
Having an idea of writing a research and knowing what it is all about and stating how the research would be carried out is important. Interpreting and analyzing data is an important facet of writing a research work Beazley (2009) because it draws out your findings from the organization, thereby using the selected variables given which in turn help proffer solutions or recommendations if need be. This is to say that as a researcher, it is a vital issue for results to be accurate and well decoded so as to ensure future understanding and knowledge for users. If not well decoded, there would be problems in understanding and probably making change or sustaining change (Ulrich 2012).
In the details of this research chapter, it analyses and examines the study due to the fact that it discusses the results and findings of this research and in addition states its implications and limitations if any that is in line with the purpose of this research work. The results gathered from this research was done using the questionnaires provided which involve the staff of the Nigerian Premier League (NPL).
In this research study, data were collected from the 40 staff involved and the questions were based on each engaging variables in the research study whereby they were various levels of feedback which cut across SA (Strongly Agree), A which is (Agree), SD which is (Strongly Disagree), and D which is (Disagree) and the analysis is based on the engagement of various staff involved.
The aim of the chapter which helps to bring out the effects and consequences of the generated research, makes available all the important issues or elements thereby giving answers and feedback to the research objectives/questions.
4.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
4.1.1 To assess the levels of skills/ability, motivation and incentives and opportunity to participate, measure levels of organizational commitment, motivation and job satisfaction and identify discretionary behaviour and performance.
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