Mcclellands Achievement Need Theory Commerce Essay
The Motivation Concept: The term motivation is derived from the word motive. Motive means proposal, requirement or feelings that prompt a person to action. A stimulus is behind the human behavior and is dependent upon the purpose of the concerned person. By analyzing and studying the requirements and wishes of a person will allow us to know his motives.
No universal theory can describe the factors that influence the motives of a person that restricts mans behavior and nature at a specific point of time. There are different motives that can influence human behavior at different times and between different people. The main purpose of the motivation studies is to analyze the different motives of a person which leads to different type of human behavior.
According to Edwin B Flippo, Motivation can be defined as a process of trying to influence individuals to perform their task through opportunities of gaining or rewarding.
The Motivation process includes the following:
Recognizing the needs
Line of Action
Outcomes – Positive/Negative
Motivation processes engages the members of the workforce to put in efforts effectively to provide their loyalty to perform the requirements of the business organization effectively. The following outcomes can be achieved if the workforces are motivated enough
The employees of the organization will be pleased if the business management provides them with necessary opportunities to satisfy their physiological and psychological requirements. Employees support and cooperation can be achieved by the management and this will indirectly supply their efforts to achieve the business targets of the organization.
Workers skills and knowledge will be improved leading to becoming a proficient employee who can contribute to the growth of the business organization providing increased efficiency.
This will also allow reduction in labour turnover rates and absenteeism among the employees.
Motivation also reduces resistance among the employees and with the organization leading to good relationship with the organization.
As the atmosphere within the organization is positive it leads to reduction in number of complaints and grievances.
As the employees are satisfied it will lead to improvement in quality of products and public reputation of the organization which will indirectly lead to better quantity and quality of goods and services with less wastage
The main purpose and focus of the researchers of the Hawthrone study was to identifying the motivation factors of the workforce and how they are motivated (Terpstra, 1979). Major approaches that lead to the perspective of motivation are:
McClelland’s Achievement Need Theory
Behavior Modification Theory
Abraham H Mallow’s need hierarch or Deficient theory of motivation
J. S. Adam’s Equity Theory
Vrooms Expectation Theory
Two Factors Theory
Here I would prefer to mention three of the motivational theories which I found to be interesting and almost close to reality.
McClelland’s Achievement Need Theory:
McClelland’s states three types of needs which are as follows:
Need for Achievement (n Ach): The main important and lasting motivational factor is need. Mainly for individuals who satisfy others needs. Such categories of individuals are always engaged with longing for the development and lack of circumstances in which victorious results are directly concurrent with their hard work. They always indulge in setting difficult but attainable targets for themselves as achievement with easy attainable targets barley provides a sense of satisfaction and achievement.
Need for Power (n Pow): Individuals will poses the desire to manage the behavior of other individuals and influence the surroundings. Positive applications of Power motivation leads to conjugal leadership style but the negative application of power motivation leans to autocratic style.
Need for Affiliation (n Aff): This type need relates to social requirement and brings in friendship. The positive outcome of this leads to formation of societal circle or unofficial groups
Behavioral Modification Theory:
Behavioral Modification theory states that individual’s behavior is the result of positive and negative precedent circumstances. This concept is based on the learning theory. Rats and school children where skinner’s choices for conducting his researches. Skinner identified that motivation for pleasing performances could be strengthened by rewarding on time. The significance of this theory can be known by implementation of monetary and non monetary incentives in industrial situation.
The speed at which the individuals are rewarded and stimulated they get motivated. Removal of reward due to unsatisfactory standard of performance may also produce required outputs. On the other hand researches demonstrate that it is more effectual to remunerate desired performances than to rebuke undesired performances.
Two Factor Theory:
Douglas McGregor introduced the Two factor theory with the assistance of two views:
X assumptions are conventional in style
Y assumptions are contemporary in style
Individuals intrinsically have an aversion to work
Individuals should be coerced or controlled to perform their task to meet the objectives
Individuals have preference to be directed
Individual’s perception of work is to be as normal as to participate and rest
Individuals will put in effort for self direction and control for accomplishing the objectives of the organization as are dedicated to.
Individuals gain knowledge to acknowledge and seek responsibility
Neo-Human Relations School was introduced by Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970) with Frederick Herzberg (1923 - ) in 1950’s. This school focused on psychological requirements of the employees. Abraham Maslow introduced a theory according to which human needs are classified into five levels which the workforce needs to satisfy.
The needs are organized into hierarchical order and as the lower level needs are satisfied then the employees would be motivated enough by opening to move to the higher hierarchical order for satisfying the needs. For example a person is starving and is thriving due to lack of food will be motivated to get a basic pay for buying food rather than perturbing to secure the job agreement or the reverence of others.
Therefore a business school offers incentives in a different way to the individuals in order to assist them to satisfy their need and indirectly leading to growth in the hierarchy. The Organization managers should also understand that the workforce is not motivated in the same manner and will not move up in the hierarchy at the same speed. Therefore the managers will have to provide a different package of incentives from employee to employee.
Types of Motivation:
Intrinsic Motivation: this type of motivation occurs when individuals are internally stimulated to perform because it either brings them satisfaction or they believe that it is essential or because they feel that what they are learning is more important.
Extrinsic Motivation This type of motivation comes in to picture when students are forced to do certain things or act in a way due to external factors to him or her (example grades or money)
What are Extrinsic and Intrinsic rewards:
According to numerous establishments, the appropriate approach to motivation in terms of work lies in cautious differentiation between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. According to Herzberg (1964) the difference between extrinsic rewards around a job as salaries, extreme benefits and job security and intrinsic rewards of job as self-esteem, sense of achievement, and personal growth. Herzberg states that intrinsic rewards are more satisfying and stimulating.
McGregor (1967) is well known for his two main managerial theories which are Theory X and Theory Y which highlights respectively extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. According to Deci (1975) in his book intrinsic motivation highlights how imprudent use of extrinsic rewards can be.
Teachers are first and foremost motivated by intrinsic rewards such as self-esteem, duty and sense of achievement. Thus administrators of the organization can increase their moral and stimulate teachers to do extremely well by means of participation, in-service education and organized supportive assessment.
What Motivates Teachers?
Studies have shown that teachers are stimulated more by intrinsic than by extrinsic rewards. According to Pastor and Erlandson (1982) survey conducted which showed that teachers recognize their requirements and compute their job satisfaction by factors such as involvement in decision making, usage of skills, liberty and sovereignty, challenge, expression of creativity and learning opportunity. They concluded that elevated internal motivation, work satisfaction and elevated quality performance depends on three critical psychological states: experienced meaningfulness, responsibility of results and awareness of results. Greatest satisfaction obtained by teachers is through a sense of accomplishment in getting and affecting students, experiencing acknowledgment and feeling accountable.
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