Job Design Is Defined As Organizing Tasks Commerce Essay
Job Design is defined as organizing tasks , duties , and responsibilities into a productive unit of work in the way that provides satisfaction to job holders and increase their effectiveness.
"Job design has been defined by Davis (1996) as: The specification of the contents, methods, and relationship of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as well as the social and personal requirements of the job holder". (Armstrong 2006, pg.330).
Job Design is critically related to many other Human Resource activities as depicted below.
Job Analysis and design: relationship with other HRM Activities
Source:Based on Lamond 1995, p.9
Currently , job design is receiving greater attention for three major reasons;(Schuler, 1998,p.266)
Job design can increase performance in certain jobs, especially those where employee motivation can make a big difference
Job design can affect job satisfaction, because people are more satisfied with certain job configurations than with others
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Job design can affect both physical and mental health problems such as hearing loss, backache and leg pain sometimes can be traced directly to job design, as can stress high blood pressure, and heart disease.
A proper analysis of a job should be done before defining what the employee will have to being in that position.Not every one would enjoy being an HR Manager, an engineer, a nurse or a drill press operator, but various people like and do well at each of these jobs. The person/job fit is a simple but important concept of matching characteristics of people with characteristics of jobs. If a person does not fit a job, either the person can be changed or replaced, or the job can be altered." In the past it was much more common to try to make the 'round' person fit the 'square' job For example; a sales job may furnish a good opportunity to satisfy social needs, whereas a training assignment may satisfy a need to expand expertise in a specific area. A job that gives little autonomy may not satisfy a need to be creative or innovative." (Human Resource Management by Robert L. Mathis, John Harold, page 163)
2. METHODS / TECHNIQUES /APPROACHES.
2.1 Scientific Method
Frederick Taylor (1911) developed a method of designing organizations and jobs using "scientific" methods that are still used by many companies today. Productivity is defined as the amount of work performed in a given unit of time. Productivity is most easily measured when applied to work in which the products can be quantified (such as forms processing work within insurance companies)
However for many "knowledge" workers, productivity can not be measured through traditional quantitative approaches .For these workers, productivity is related to the effectiveness by which they attain their goals (such as successful introduction of a product, or satisfying a customer) Thus, effective work is related to mission and goal attainment rather than to units of production (O'Leary -Kelly et al., 1994) The concept of effective work has also been applied to teams. Team effectiveness has two components: process, and goal attainment (Jones et al., 1983; Nadler, 1977).
A statement containing items such as
Machines,tools and equipments
Materials and forms used
Supervision given or recieved
A statement of human qualification necessary to do the job.
usually contain such items as
Source: Dale S.Beach,Personnel- "THE MANAGEMENT OF PEOPLE AT WORK",P.166
2.2 Classical Method
Traditional methods mainly based on the concept that there should be some divisions of labour and it can be found mostly only in the flexible organizations and this leads to the method with the aim of achieving job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotations
Job Design Approaches:
Fig 2.2: The design field of "Job Design" according to Leavitt (1979)
2.3 Human Relations Approach
Kurt Lewin observed the relationship in between job holder and effect of the work environment and introduced a new model called Human Relations Approach.
2.3.1 Lewin Approach:
He defined a group as a dynamic system of interactions between persons and initiated comprehensive laboratory studies with the aim of investigating communications network, leadership behavior, unity of the group and a behavioral model within the group (Lewin1948)
The results showed that the members were taking interest in decision making and leadership skills are tremendously improved.
2.4 Socio-technical System Approach
This approach was introduced by Davis and Taylor in 1972.Their study is a combination of group behavior and technology. "In this organizational theory approach, particularly emphasis is placed on the necessity to integrate engineering and social science thinking". (Staehe, 1973)
This theory was developed by the Tavistock Institute of F.E Emery,E.Trist and A.K Rice in London in the early fifties is based on the specified production techniques but emphasize the freedom in the social system that emerges( Groskurth and Volper,1973)
This essay is an example of a student's work
The job design term is the expression for suitable measures for the formation of work related to the person assigned to carry out the task. ( Gablers Wirtschftslexiteon, 1987)
and work groups which we are known as Traditional Methods of Job Design.
The main important factor of Job design is match the purpose of the organization in achieving their objectives. In this context, job design include not only the design of a specific job, but also, the activities carried out in the organization, the technology used in the process of production, the changes in the internal followed by the changes in the external environment and also concern about team roles and their activities and tasks.
According to Armstrong (2006, pg. 328), there are some factors which affect job design. They concern to the introduction of new technologies in the organization and the adaptability of the employees to deal with them. The following factors are:
The process of intrinsic motivation; (The process of intrinsic motivation is a concept based on the fact that people work hard when they have the support to achieve their goals).
The characteristics of task structure; (Jobs design requires different tasks into a job and these tasks can be divided in three elements: Planning, executing and controlling).
The motivation characteristics of jobs; (There is a tendency of employees to receive the responsibility of carrying out functions of planning and control, and this give them a sense of empowerment.
The significance of the job characteristics model; ("This is a model that shows the link between dimensions of jobs, the experience of people in the job and the psychological and behavioural outcomes that may be expected" (Harding Sue and Long Trevor, 2006, pg. 117).
Providing intrinsic motivation. ( Lawler (1969), in ( Armstrong Michael,2006) says, there are three characteristics in jobs to be motivating: Feedback, use of abilities and self-control)
In order to give support to our analyses in job design, we have chosen one theory: Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This theory was developed by Abraham Maslow in 1943 and it was based in the principles of everyone is motivated by needs (Mullins J. Laurie, 2007). Maslow's theory remains as a great tool for understanding human motivation, management training and personal development in the organization.
According to Armstrong (2006), Job design has two aims: the first one is to satisfy the organizational needs and increase de productivity and the second one concern to the satisfaction to the employees in terms of achieving goals in the work place and also self satisfaction in doing a job well.
Many years ago, most of the jobs were based only in the routine of machine- controlled, some of them still remain, however, many changes have happened and the social aspects and a more physiological orientation in the organization substituted the old approach. Maslow` s theory was one of the more remarkable examples of this new approach in the way job design was developed. In his model, even if he did not intend to apply his theory based to the work situation, it had a great importance on management approach to motivation and the design of work organization and it still remain up to date nowadays. Maslow `s theory describes five stages in his theory of need model: (Mullins J. Laurie, 2007).
3.1 Maslow's theory of needs
Physiological needs - air, food, drink, etc.
Safety needs - security, order, law, stability, etc.
Social Needs - work group, family, affection, relationship, etc.
Self- Esteem Needs - self-esteem, achievement, independence, status, etc.
Self- Actualization Needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfilment, etc.
(Harding Sue and Long Trevor, 2006, pg. 125)
According with the diagram above, the physiological need is the first step to be satisfied for a person to progress in next levels. Maslow` s theory agreed that no individual who intend to succeed in their lives or career, can achieve their goals without solving their first necessities.
Like other models, Maslow's theory is not perfect tool to understand the complexity of modern life and their changes; however, it gives a rich understanding of human behavior and definitely gives a great support for organizations in term of human resource management and job design. A company which project a job design based on the importance of the aspects of motivation of employees in the work environment, has far bigger probability of succeeding than others.
3.4 Examples of Job Design
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MARKS & SPENCER -
In order to give a better service and information about health to their costumer, M&S has been training 1,500 Healthy Eating Assistants to help and encourage them to make healthier choices. They have been doing the same initiative for their employees as well.
Following is the example of Job Design in University of Sheffield.
These guidelines apply to all staff and have been developed in full consultation with the campus Unions.
3.5 Principles of Good Practice in Job Design.
All managers who are responsible for staff management, job design and work allocations should be aware of, and observe, the following principles:
Duties and requirements of a job should be clear to every one when recruiting staff, and clear person specifications will be used
Job descriptions will be clearly developed with staff to ensure that duties and responsibilities are clearly communicated
Clear lines of responsibility will exist for staff and managers and management structures will be place
The procedures for the allocation of work and specific duties and responsibilities should be fair and will be put in place and communicated widely
Job design and work allocation will be based upon meeting the aims and objectives of the department and the university, taking into account individual skills, and experience, individual preference and overall aspirations
Managers and heads of Departments will be accessible to staff, with discussion with individual members of staff forming a key part of job design
3.6 Responsibilities of Staff
All staff are responsible for:
Raising any issues regarding job design and the allocation of duties and responsibilities with the relevant manager or their Head of Department.
Renewing and updating their expertise and knowledge recognising that they are dependant upon this for their continued effectiveness.
Job design can help to improve motivational and commitment by involving individual in planning the way their jobs are done. It can include tasks at a higher level, at the same level but with more variety and tasks that are rotated among employees to prevent repetition. In addition, re- designing jobs can often change the structure of an organisation as employees take on more individual responsibility leading to a reduction in the number of tiers of management. Also Job Design brings in more advantages in long term & short term. For example
Feed back on performance at any stage of the employment to check the performance against the job description.
Opportunity of learning problem solving and individual development
Clear goals that provide some challenge
Provision of sufficient resources (e.g. training, information equipment and materials.)
5. Critical Analysis
So if we critically analyze this topic we should say that objective of organization is only achieved when we combine our efforts to build a high profile criteria to design any job so by looking at its objectives, advantages, why it is used when it is used how it is prepared by whom it is prepared and then we come to know that these all play important part in human resource job design duty.
Whatever exists, exists in some amount and can, therefore, be measured" (Dunnette; 1966). Performance appraisal is process that provides an analysis of a person's overall capabilities and potential, allowing informed decisions to be made for particular purposes. "An important part of the Process is assessment whereby data on an individual's past and current work behavior and performance are collected and reviewed".
(Bratton & Gold, )
Performance appraisal brings a lot of positive impacts to the organization as well as to the employees. Currently new & innovative appraisal methods are used to overcome the traditional inefficiencies in performance appraisal.
One of the difficulties the supervisors face when doing the performance appraisal is using assessments in dispensing rewards. But the new methods used like multi source feed back give transparency view to the employee and employer. Though traditional methods used money as the motivational tool most organizations nowadays consider the need of the employee and the development of the organization and plans on continuous career development planning as one of the rewards.
According to Edward Thorndike's reinforcement theory "Behavior that is followed by positive consequences probably will be repeated" (Ref: http://d.scribd.com/docs/2m8t52jy26z9iy9lbzz.pdf). Normally performance appraisal is done after understanding the nature of the job. It should be done accurately & in a timely manner to get very best results and also to make sure that the employee is going in the correct path and working towards achieving the targets. Giving a feed back will always help staff to progress and to perform better."Progressive discipline is a series of attempts that employers make to turn -around poor performing employees via verbal and written performance warnings" (Falcone, 2001). So the performance appraisal is a continuous act of disciplinary process.
Employers and managers need to be aware of employee performance and need to review performances regularly in order to run an effective performance appraisal system. If an employees hard work is not recognized, then employees will feel less motivated to work. On the other hand if the employees' inefficiencies are not pointed out the employee will be continuing the inefficient work style continuously which is a disadvantage. This will lead the company failing to complete aims which they have set. This is the importance of the company being aware of the performance of their staff. Whether staffs are under performing or performing to the best of their ability.
Both quantitative & qualitative criteria for measuring performance are necessary for effective performance management. (KAPLAN AND Nortan 1992). Performance appraisal involves two distinct purposes: observation & judgment It serves 2 purposes: evaluation of performance & development of it.
It is also evident that this process could generate a negative impact in the employees, if it is not implemented in the adequate form and following the company vision. "The usefulness of performance reviews is determined by how people understand the functions, usefulness, and process of reviewing performance and how they act on their different understandings." (Bacal 2003)
2. Performance Appraisal Methods
There are numerous ways of appraising employees whom have performed well, a well developed performance system includes:
* Comparative method
Â Â Â Â Â - Paired comparisons
Â Â Â Â Â - Ranking
Â Â Â Â Â - Forced distribution
In forced distribution method the appraiser rate the employee into 5 to 7 categories. The distribution can be A is 10%, B is 20%, C is 50 %, D is 15% and E is 5%.This approach is forced into predetermined categories and it produces win or lose positions.
* Absolute methods
Â Â Â Â Â Â - Narrative approach & rating scales
The rating method results ranking the employees according to their performance from best to worst. The order of merit scale determines the rank. the top 10% get A grade, the next 25% get B grade and so on. It can reflect forced distribution method but it depends on objectivity and fairness.
* Critical incident technique
Critical incident technique can point out effective and ineffective behavior.
Measures can be effective to ineffective by using numerical measure or grades. For examples the top is 'A' grade and the lowest is 'D' grade .Several descriptions will help to measure from all dimensions. This can elaborate behavioral description by the help of critical incident techniques. For example'' It is very forceful to work as a group''.
* behaviorally anchored rating scales.
* Result oriented methods
This is a method the employees rate themselves based on the set goals & achievements. "Self Appraisals are effective tools for programs focusing on self-development, personal growth, and goal commitment" (Schuler, 1998, p 364). It is believed most of the time that self appraisal methods are linier and gives high results in some instances.
* 360- Degree appraisals.
Performance outcomes & criteria are divided into two sectors
- Input based criteria to be personal traits, competences and skills that an employee brings to a company job.
- Output based criteria are concerned with individual performance objective or goals to be met by the employee.
(Beardwell & Calydon,â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.)
360 degree feed back:
It is a multi rater assessment and questionnaire is common to conduct this appraisal. One to one method is not very effective in some instances. The appraisal is done by a variety of people.
The feed back can be from bosses (90 Degree Appraisal), from their staff (180 Degree) and from peers and customers (the full 360 Degree appraisal)
Most of the time the 360 degree method contains the following criteria:
-team player, manage people
Success of 360 degree feed back
- Good communication and training are followed
- Bureaucracy is not reflected in this method
- The menu which is in the form is mainly related with events experience by the employee.
Performance related pay is the new way to reward employees and fixed pay bands are largely disappearing. Some companies have a typical pay which employees are paid plus they have a certain percentage of extra pay which they are awarded according to their performance. The most common organization which is well known for performance related pay is The John Lewis Partnership. They have a scheme where employees are paid according to the companies profits; basically employees are partners of the company and each employee have a certain share in the company. This method is proved successful as employees are rewarded according to the company's performance. Employees are not called employees instead they are seen as partners of the company. This scheme is rewarding and employees feel working harder equals to having a higher pay and higher benefits, this is to encourage employees to care for the company's success and also to contribute to meeting objectives.
'Partners should gain personal satisfaction by being members of a co-owned enterprise in which they have worthwhile, secure and fulfilling employment and confidence in the way the Partnership conduct its business. (http://www.johnlewispartnership.co.uk, page- About us, our strategy)
Developing an appraisal system that accurately reflects employee performance is a difficult task. Performance appraisal systems are not generic or easily passed from one company to another; their design and administration must be tailor-made to match employee and organizational characteristics and qualities
(Henderson, 1984, p. 54). This method always acts as a proper channel of communication between the employee and the supervisor when evaluating performance.
'Performance management is a process which is designed to improve organizational, team and individual performance and which is owned and driven by line managers' (Dransfeild, 2000). This process is also important for the supervisor or manger so that he can know the performance of his subordinate and try to improve and give training for the skills in which he is lacking and to promote the continuity for the good work he is doing.
Performance appraisal is expected to be a key point for an employee to reconfirm what their part in the organization. Performance appraisal works on the basis of the following equation
Desired performance - actual performance = need for action (Advanced Business- Dave Needham, Robert Dransfeild, 2000 p.441). Performance reviews and appraisals which lead to infringements and benefits encourage employees to work harder.
It is important that the process ensures that employees understand how their personal job performance contributes to the overall performance of the company. This direct linkage helps to create team working and shared responsibility. Team effort items from shared objectives reflecting organizational goals and clarification and understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each member (Kellogg, 1975, p. 22)
SMART is an acronym used describe key characteristics of appraisal objectives.
Each of the letters stands for the following; and this is very common and most of the mangers know very well.
This can find in commonly all the management books
S specific (one result)
M measurable outcome
A agreed (both)
R realistic (realistically achieved)
T timely (when will or was achieved).
Performance appraisal is a useful device, which provides relevant information to make decision related to:
Performance improvement : identifies strengthens and weaknesses to get the maximum productivity of the employees.
Management development : drives individuals to new challenges.
Identification of potential : determines candidate to get promoted.
Feedback : confronts expectations with the actual development.
Human resource planning : evaluates the HR functions.
Communications : generates channels of understanding.
Performance measurement : evaluates the individual and group contribution.
Remuneration and benefits
Collect information for HR Planning
4 Effective Enforcement Of Performance Appraisal:
4.1 Organizational and Employee Objective
One of the first steps to develop an effective performance appraisal is that their should be clear objective for the organization then this objective will be translated to departmental objective and then individual objective working with the employee to agree their personal performance target. This will allow the employee to know the standards by which his performance will be measured.
This process includes the job description, job role job responsibilities and explaining how their jobs are useful for the organizational objective.
It is important that the process ensures that employees understand how their personal job performance contributes to the overall performance of the company. This direct linkage helps to create team working and shared responsibility. Team effort stems from shared objectives reflecting organizational goals and clarification and understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each member (Kellogg, 1975, p. 22)
4.2 Training of Raters
A major aspect of developing an effective performance system is training for those individuals involved as raters. This training should start with a focus on providing the manager with a systematic approach to the practice of effective people management
(Goff and Longenecker, 1990)
This training needs to focus on the managing, motivating and evaluating employee's performance. Performance appraisal is only a part of this overall procedure so the managers should see this part in proper context.
Thus training should begin those levels of management that will be involved in administering the programme and providing training for lower levels of supervision. Once these senior managers have "bought into" the system, skill training is needed for junior managers and supervisors. This specific training should include at least the following:
â€¢ Supervision skills
â€¢ Coaching and counselling
â€¢ Conflict resolution
â€¢ Setting performance standards
â€¢ Linking the system to pay (assuming this is an aim of the appraisal system);
â€¢ Providing employee feedback (Evans, 1991)
4.3 Maintaining records
Another key to ensuring the effective use of a performance appraisal scheme is keeping and maintaining accurate records of employee's performance. Carefully maintained, they establish patterns in an employee's behavior that may be difficult to spot by typical incident-by-incident supervision (Crane, 1991).
Record is always helpful for an employees performance measurement good or bad records always help the mangers to make some important decisions promotion or to degradation of an employee.
4.4 Measurement System
For the effective use of performance appraisal the measurement or the grading system also plays important role most of the companies grade their employee or mangers with the ranks for example top five or top three managers different rate system helps to analyze the performance of different employees and particularly this system helps to identify bias this can be particularly important where an organization is keen to avoid real or perceived bias with respect to race, gender or age.
Example no 1
Police officer performance appraisal system in Canada
Participants were 393 police officers from 15 large municipal police departments in Canada and seven of the ten Canadian provinces were represented by at least one police department. The percentage of participants according to rank was as follows: constable: 34.4 percent (n Â¼ 135); sergeant: 37.9 percent (n Â¼ 149); and staff sergeant: 27.7 percent (n Â¼ 109). On average, participants had 6.26 (SD Â¼ 5.39) years of service in their current rank and 17.13 (SD Â¼ 6.94) total years of police service. Participants represented a broad range of police functions including patrol (50.4 percent, n Â¼ 198), criminal investigation (23.5 percent, n Â¼ 92), administration (19.8 percent, n Â¼ 78), traffic enforcement (3.8 percent, n Â¼ 15), community service (2.0 percent Â¼ 8), and internal affairs (0.5 percent, n Â¼ 2).
The study entailed the administration of a six-section, 18-item questionnaire
Measuring participants' views about different aspects of the performance Appraisal system in their organizations and their perceptions of their own performance.
In total, 30 questionnaires were randomly distributed in each department to ten constables, ten sergeants, and ten staff sergeants. Each questionnaire included a cover letter signed by the researcher explaining the purpose of the study and the fact that completion of the questionnaire was both anonymous and voluntary. Participants were asked to seal their completed questionnaires in the envelopes provided and to deliver the sealed envelopes to the department's central mail service for subsequent forwarding to the researcher.
The vast majority of participants (82.2 percent) indicated that their appraisals are either frequently or always based on the assessment of personal traits. In contrast, only 53.2 percent indicated that work-related results either frequently or always serve as the basis of their appraisals a similar percentage, 49.4 percent, reported that work-related behaviours are typically considered in the appraisal process Indeed, approximately half of the participants reported that work-related results and behaviors are either never or only sometimes taken into account in the evaluation of their performance
Example no 2:
British Telecom Broadband Call Centre
The performance appraisal system of British Telecom for its broadband department works like that there are normally two call monitoring done by the team leaders for each team member. Each team normally consists of around 15 people.
The call of each employee is monitored by one of the managers for the maintaining good standards. These performance appraisals resulted in the top performers being awarded with prizes like a fully paid day off etc. This way of monitoring performance on weekly basis is very important for keeping the customers service standards at a good and acceptable level.
Deborah F. Boice and Brian H. Kleiner
Volume 46 Â· Number 6 Â· 1997 Â· pp. 197-201
MCB University Press Â· ISSN 0043-8022
Larry M. Coutts and Frank W. Schneider
Department of Psychology, University of Windsor, Windsor,
Planning is an important step before conducting a performance appraisal. It is very important to check whether the Performance appraisal will improve staff and create good relationships. The pre appraisal planning will include the
Consulting with Employees & volunteers
Keep objectives simple & Specific
Avoid conflicting objectives
Avoid too many objectives
Consult with organization's legal advisors
(Nieto, 2006.p 146)
4.6 Maintaining records
Another key to ensuring the effective use of a performance appraisal scheme is keeping and maintaining accurate records of employee's performance. "Carefully maintained, they establish patterns in an employee's behavior that may be difficult to spot by typical incident-by-incident supervision" (Crane, 1991).
The record maintenance will help the managers to evaluate the performance history of the employee for promotion or demotion.
5. Why performance appraisal is an effective tool
Managers and supervisors are responsible for both designing and providing the evaluation of employee performance appraisals, at least once per year. They determine the expectations, behaviors, responsibilities and competences for their employees during a certain period of time, which can be both motivating and exciting for the employees of the company. "Often, the performance evaluation process is the only time you have for formal communication with your employees about their work." (Delpo, 2005) When the performance appraisal is applied following the necessary steps, it becomes a measure to determine the productivity of every company member.
The time invested during the development of performance appraisal is the most valuable time for a manager, because it may prevent mistakes and therefore saving time correcting them.
"In every type of business and organization, evaluation is an important management tool. It has great significance for the efficiency of a business, for the utilization of available resources, for the management of business processes and finally for the very achievement of the business objectives." (Kressler, 2003)
As an example of how companies take advantage of performance appraisal we asked the catering manager Mark Frendo at Chelsea Health Club, who has applied Management by objectives as a method for performance reviews and he commented that through this HR tool he has gained 87% of his objectives successfully completed since he joined the company. Because the employees feel that their job is important and is belong of general goal.
There are different methods which are more adequate depending on the company, depending on their internal organization, one method could work successfully for certain company, but could be failure for another one. Performance appraisal is a process which at the long term save money and prevent faults in the future, which would affect the company general purpose.
Association of Music Therpists(APMT), a charity organization in UK which conducts a 360 degree appraisal method in which the feedback of the employee is received from the Executive committee members and the performance related pay and job based training are provide based on that feed back. If the performance of the employee is not successful a further period of three months is given for the employee to work effectively to achieve the goals.
6. Critical Analysis
Why people think there is no outcome in Performance appraisal & it is waste of time? It is because "The theory and reasoning behind the policy is excellent but the implementation and development of the process is sorely lacking" (Nieto, 2006.153) Also some people feel that performance appraisal can de-motivate the staff or give inefficient results if the relationship between the supervisor & the subordinate is not satisfactory. In some instances the performance appraisal can give negative results because of fear & tendency. But still if effective ways are used for performance appraisal these problems can be eliminated. To overcome all these problems and make it a more practical view new & effective methods are used by organisations.
Unilever is one of the largest multinational company and sets the goals at the start of the year and conducts a once a year performance review. This review decides any promotion or future opportunities http://www.mercer.com/referencecontent.htm?idContent=1215590. Though some organizations don't have the formal once a year or once in six month person to person performance appraisal they have annual meetings in which the goals are set and end of the year a count down is done to check whether the expected goals are met.
It looks like the performance appraisal is a time wasting activity as we feel why it is needed when the staff get de - motivated and the planning takes time. But it is always an important component in a job environment where a job design is properly planned and when making changes in the job design. The performance appraisal in a job environment always reviews the past and future plans for fostering good relationships between employees & management, motivating attitude & behavior and carrier development.
"However there are also ways of rating performance that do not rely on observation of individuals but assess performance in terms of output or other criteria such as absenteeism, number of mistakes & wastage"-(Arnold,1966) which actually reflects the efficiency of an employee in his/her work.
"Expectancy theory hypothesizes that employees alter their behavior due to their anticipated satisfaction of valued goals". (Wil Harzing & Van Ruysseveldt, 2004)
So IF the organization wants to get a best out of an employee they SHOULD select an appraisal method to their organisation that fits them.
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