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How Organisation And Behaviour Varies Commerce Essay

This paper provides information about organisation and behaviour. What is organisation, type of organisation and aims and objectives of organisation? How manager manage and function in organisation. Also give some idea about organisation structure and culture, individual behaviour, leadership, motivation and organisation environment. This assignment paper also gives some important point or idea about how people should behave in organisation and as well as the significance of organisational design and managerial roles.

TASK 1

Understand the relationship between organisation structure and culture. What is an organisation and what are main characteristic of organisation? What skill do manager require at different levels of managerial responsibilities and why? Explain with suitable example from any organisation you are familiar with. Describe the organisation you are referring to.

Introduction of organisation

Organisation is a place where group of people with different age, casts, sex, attitude and culture work together to achieve certain goal. According (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004) “A work organisation is a social arrangement for the controlled performance of collective goals”. Organisations can be categorised by size, sector, activity and legal form. It can be profitable and non profitable. Organisation can be with different form of ownerships

Sole trader: this is owned by single person where s/he will manage everything and bear both profit and loss by themselves.

Public sector: this organisation is form by government for public.

Partnership: this is next type of organisation where more than 2 people forms and share profit and loss

1.2Characteristics of organisation:

There should be formal structure in an organisation(like policies, rule and regulation, procedures etc)

Organisations have to direct and controlled all the activities.

Organisations have to their aims, objective and purpose.

Organisations employ resources like raw material, plant and machinery etc to perform their work.

Organisations are accountable for their action and decisions stakeholder;

Organisation have to motivate and give training to all staff:

1.3Organisational Goals and Objectives;

Every organisation has their own goals and objectives weather organisation is small or big. Goals indicates an expectation, desire, inputs and outputs etc. t should be SMART this mean specific, measureable, achievable, realistic and time bound. Objectives flow from gaols and set out the specific intentions of operational units. Some function of goals and objectives are as follows:

1.3.1Function of goals

Goals provide a standard of performance;

They provides a basis for planning and control;

Influence the structure and nature of organisation;

They provide a basis for objective, policy and evaluating change;

Encourage, commitment from employees;

1.3.2 Function of objectives

Objectives should be realistic and measurable;

Targets should be clear;

Be open to adaptation;

Further the aims and purpose of organisation;

Values and policies should be conform;

1.4Organisational culture

Organisational culture means the studies of organisational behaviour. According to Buchanan and Huczynski (2004) define culture as “the collection of relatively uniform and enduring values, beliefs, customs, traditions and practices that are shared by organisations members, learned by mew recruits and transmitted from one generation of employees to the next”.

1.5Type of organisational culture

Different people have different view about type of organisational culture.

Therefore Harrison (1972), Deal and Kennedy (1982) define

Four type of culture they are as follow

Harrison(1972)

Deal and Kennedy(1982)

Power orientated

Tough guy macho

People orientated

Work hard

Task orientated

Bet your company

Role orientated

Process

1.6Influences an organisational culture

Some influences of an organisational culture are

History of organisation

Structure, size, location of organisation

Leadership and management style

Goals and objectives

Technology and external environment

Characteristics of the work for

1.7Impact of organisational culture

As we know organisational culture is studies of organisational behaviour therefore there are many advantage of culture. It helps to bring change in organisation and achievement in goals and objectives. Same way it help to participative in decision making, motivation, reduce conflict with each other, working together so they can achieve company goals.

1.8 Managerial Roles

Every organisation has their own manager so that s/he can handle business activities. Managers need various skills in order to perform work in an organisation. Managerial skills mean ability and quality of manager. Therefore with the help of skills s/he can handle and solve the problem related to organisations after that s/he can make successful organisation position in market. There is various type of organisation which needs different managerial skill in order to solve problem and run business smoothly. Skills are managing people, motivation, conflict management, equal treatment to everyone strategic thinking, communication skills, team player and participation .According to Mintzberg(1973) there are three type managerial roles they are as follows;

Decisional roles:

Entrepreneurial, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator

Informational roles

Monitor, disseminator, spokesperson

Interpersonal roles:

Figurehead, leader, liaison

:

Decisional roles: This roles mean a manager have abilities to create new opportunities, solving problem related with organisation people and among employees. Management and distributions of resources and decide what to do in which time after that negotiating with people who is belong to organisation for example trade unions and stakeholder.

Informational roles: These roles include how mange has to work like s/he has to collect information about an organisation. Send and receive that information to all members of staff. When there is program outdoor then manage have to represented the company.

Interpersonal roles: This mean that manger have to involve in any activities like party, meetings, seminars etc of company people. S/he has to give motivation, suggestion and keep good relationship with all people weather they are staff or public.

1.9My experience in my organisations

Valley food restaurant is name of our organisation where i work as assistance supervisor .My duties is to arrange restaurant environment and to deal with different customers. Manager of our company is Mr. Dev Patel he is a gentle man .He have every quality which is said by Mintzberg (1973). He can handle every one, he motivate all staff and give training and behave equal to all staff of our company. He likes to join us in our problem n help to solve them. He know how to manage the resource, distribution them every time he give us new idea about our work. Before 15minute to open restaurant we have small meeting where our manager give every information about daily work , he share his experience with us and motivate us to work hard and enjoy in work. Either someone is new or first day at work he gives all instruction and helps them. One day when I was working in restaurant one customer is not satisfied with my service and start to discuss with me that time I was so nervous then I could not able to handle the situation . Suddenly my manager come to me and handle the situation .I thought manager will angry with me but next day he teach me the way to handle customer in different situation and motivate me to do work with carefully.

Now i can handle any situation in our work place because our manager helps us. Therefore i can say that our manager have every quality which is require in his post.

TASK 2

Understand different approaches to management and leadership. Using any organisation as an example, how important are Mintzberg’s five organisational parts? Give types of organisational structure and his ten management roles organisational performance.

2.1 Model On Organisational Structures By Mintzbergs Mintzbergs has classified organisational structure in the five types

Operating core

Strategic apex

Middle-line managers

Techno structure

Support staff

Operating core: first step of organisational part is operating core. Where different people of company work together. In these stage people producing the products and services after that they delivering them. These is a place where basis work is done for example, off-licence, take way restaurant etc

Strategic apex: These are a second stage of organisational part. When business is growing then work also increase. In these stage manager is require so that he can manage the organisation activities like planning for future, decision making, planning goals and objectives, handling stakeholder etc have to be done. For example restaurant, insurance company etc

Middle-line managers: Third stage is middle-line managers these mean when company get larger and larger than lot of people working under one manager but need more managers to handle staff and one manager to manage other managers. For example hotel industry, hospital, shopping mall etc which have many department so that one manager can’t handle every staff.

Techno structure: Techno structure is fourth stage. These stages presented about which technology, latest plant and machinery, new idea, technique and different tool should organisation used to perform work in first stage. As business is bigger there should be various problem reading with technique so only specialist can fix them. The techno structure can operate all levels of organisations. For example engineer, trainer, recruiter etc.

Support staff: This is a final step of organisation part. It include group of people in the organisation who provide internal service and support to the organisation. For example cafeteria, public relations office, legal counsel etc.

We can take example of Hotel which follows same structure as define by Mint bergs. It is necessary to follow the Mint bergs structure because without any structure and planning a business cannot reach and achieve their targets or goals. In hotel industry there are lot of department such as production, housekeeping, front office, store, customer service, reservation etc Hotel industry main income source is their customers therefore they have to follow 5 step they are operating core, strategic apex, middle-line managers, techno structure and support staff in order to satisfied their customer so that they can achieve their goal. Operating core mean first floor where hotel staff are working for their customer like welcome them and other activities. Second step is strategic apex this mean now manager have to make plan how organisation, staff will work, decision making, planning objective and goals as well as handling stakeholder. Third step is middle line managers it take place

When hotel get larger and larger where one manager cannot manage the organisation and need more managers to perform work. Fourth and fifth step is techno structure and support staff. Techno structure mean when hotel have some problem then they will help like technique problem, staff wanted, trainer etc will provide by this section and final is support staff which is for staff or organisation life public relation, cafeteria etc. Like these way five part of organisational structure work and support organisation to get their destinations.

2.2 Type of Organisation Structure

According to mintzbergs there are five organisational structure they are as follow:

Simple structure

Machine bureaucracy

Professional bureaucracy

Divisionalised form

Adhocracy

Simple structure:

Simple structure is not formalised and planning, training, little support staff. All important decision is make by chief executive officer. In this type of structure environment also simple like controlled and decision making is done by individual.

Machine bureaucracy

It is related with large business where work is processes by the techno structure. Machine bureaucracy is an elaborate administrative structure with sharp distinction between line and staff. Environment is simple and stable in this type of structure.

Professional bureaucracy

The strategies of the professional bureaucracy are mainly developed by the individual professionals within the organization as well as of the professional associations on the outside. Most of the necessary coordination between the operating professionals is handled by the standardization of skills and knowledge, especially by what they have learned to expect from their colleagues.

Divisionalised form

This structure is different from other structure because in this structure the groups each organisational function into a division and contain all resource and function.

Adhocracy

 The adhocracy might be considered as the most suitable structure for innovative organizations which hire and give power to experts - professionals whose knowledge and skills have been highly developed in training programs.

2.3 Ten Management Roles By mintzbergs

Heading (roles)

Sub-heading(sub roles)

Activities

Decisional roles

Entrepreneur

Disturbance handler

Resource allocator

Negotiator

Creating new idea and opportunities

Solving problem related with staff and company

Managing the resource in proper way

Negotiating to all people weather staff or public

Interpersonal roles

Figure head

Leader

Liaison

Involvements in different activities like ceremonial

Direct all staff and motivate them

Keeping good relationship with indoor and outdoor people

Information roles

Monitor

Disseminator

Spokesperson

Collecting information and use them

Sending and receiving information

Represented company in other place

http://www.sayeconomy.com/ten-management-roles-by-henry-mintzberg/

TASK 3

Understand way of using motivational theories in organisations. Managing individuals well depends upon the managers understanding of their staff. Describe the key aspects of the individual that a manager should strive to understand. Meeting the needs and expectation of people at work is recognised as key factor hat impacts motivation. Detail the practical steps you would take as a manager in order to contribute to the overall performance and behaviour of your employees.

3.1Management style

Management styles are characteristic way of making decision. There is different type of management style which is used by organisation according to business culture, nature of work force and skills of manager or leader. With the help of management styles manager or leader can understand their staff individual. There are main four type of management styles which is follow by organisation to perform their works they are as follows

Autocratic

Democratic

Consultative

Laissez faire

Autocratic management style: In this style of management all the decision is made by manager or leader themselves. Employees are not allow to take part in decision making because their duties to work without any explanation. Therefore staff will not get any motivation because managers do not feel value towards the staff.

Democratic management style: In this management style everyone is treat equal. All the leader, manager and staff are allows take part in decision making. Everyone have authority to share their views .These type of management style motivate employee a lot regarding their work.

Consultative management style: This style is mix of autocratic and democratic management style. In this style employees can take part in decision making and give their views but finally decision will make by manager or leader of organisation.

Laissez faire management style: This management style is different from above 3 management style because in this system manager give freedom to do work and in decision making. This is an effective style to use when employee are educated, skilful and experienced

(www.learnmanagement2.com

3.2 Manager role

As organisation can follow any of these systems for their business but manager have to know their employee individual so that they can work together. First thing only manager cannot work alone they need help and support to perform their duties. Therefore s/he has to know individual aspect about their employee like talent, passion, behaviour and need. These are some point manager should know. Talent mean gift of god not manmade so manager have to know what kind of talent does their employee have n use them. Passion as next aspect which manager has to know about staff .This means what their employee wants and what are their passion. It includes those things like energize, motivation, excite, and inspire each other. Behaviour is main thing that manager should know about staff. It includes keeping relationship, respect, attitude, communication, caring etc. Last but not the list is need and expectation this include what kind of thing that employee want like salary, facilities, organisational culture and environment , equal treatment and motivation etc.

3.3 Needs and expectation at work

Meeting the needs and expectation of people at work is recognised as a key factor that impacts motivation. Suppose i am a manager i will take some step in order to contribute to the overall performance and behaviour of employee they are as follow;

Social relationship

Economic rewards

Intrinsic satisfaction

Social relationship: Social relationship means friendship, good leadership, teamwork developing people etc. Manager have to control all the staff so if manager have social relationship with employee than it will easy and comfort for both to perform work in firm. If manager is like friend and good leader than everyone will share their idea and information with our any hesitation.

Economic rewards: This is second step as manager has to follow to motivation to the staff. Economic rewards include paying staff, providing a safe and healthy work place, benefits, pension’s rights, job improving, sick pay schemes, health insurance schemes and other facilities. If we want somebody work with us for long time then we have to above facilities to our staff which will motivate them to work or stay in business.

Intrinsic satisfaction: It is related to psychological rewards like achievement, appreciation and enjoyment in work. If worker are not enjoy their work than no one will happy in work so it importation to give intrinsic motivation to staff like appreciation in their work, give work which is challenging, enjoyable and interesting to do which help to motivate staff.

Therefore above 3 point is need and expectation of people at work in recognised as key factoring that impact motivation. As a manager have to follow 3 steps to motive to staff and carried out work in an organisation.

CONCLUSION

By looking at this paper I will conclude that organisation and behaviour help us to understand relationship between organisational structure and culture, management and leadership, motivation and teamwork

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