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Challenges Faced In The Socialization Process Commerce Essay

The Socialization process is the way by which we learn suitable behavior in our society. This process involve social manage, as it is a try by others to form the way we behave. As we expand sure values and adopt exacting norms, this too turn out to be a form of social organize, as we place limits on what we think to be satisfactory or "normal" presentation The Socializations process continue all through life and has many agents of socialization. The first agents we usually encounter are our families. This primary socialization teaches us the basic social skills for life. Normally the values we become skilled at from our parents stay with us all the way through life. Of course there are always some that "rebel" against what they have been trained. As a child grows and develops they will meet new agents this typically happens when a child start instruct. This less important socialization builds on the family values, whilst set up new

common skills, for case suitable recital inside larger group

In contrast, the `adapting' model is more decentralized and informal. Responsibility for strategy is diffused throughout the organization. Scanning is broader based and less sys­tematic. Information is gathered from personal sources, friends and colleagues, and through observation (field visits) and thus tends to be more qualitative and subjective. Strategic decisions are expected to be reached through consensus (socially constructed).

The underlying assumptions in this model are that the organization must be flexible and prepared to react to unforeseeable environmental events.

Controlling:

Some important definition of control is as follows:

The 'controlling' model can be characterized as centralized and formalized. Top man­agement may call in expert consultants to assist in devising strategies. Formal strategic planning units may be established to devise plans to be submitted to top management or the board for deliberation. Formal scanning units may also exist that are responsible for tracking environmental events.

In any business organization, it is highly likely that a person will have blame for organization a number of other people in the organization. In some luggage it might just be the accountability for looking after one other person and in other cases it might be very many - perhaps hundreds. The number of people that one person has responsibility for is termed the span of manage. The more people an entity has liability for the wider the span of organize is said to be.

In this example, the manager is in charge for 5 other people who are referred to as subordinate. The span of control would be 5 in this case.

It force seem obvious to recommend that one individual cannot do the whole thing in a selling. Tasks have to be given to other people to do. When this happen there is a transport of some level of authority. You might, for example, have been in a shop and the teller has had to ask their director or superintendent if s/he will come and sign something or do impressive with the till. This might relate to a refund or the exchange of a product, for example. If a worker is given the authority to be able to carry out these types of task it is referred to as handing over.

Task 3

Hofstadter’s result and significance to IS: As a result of his multi-nation study Hofstede devised four dimensions to characterize cross cultural differences. These, and their impact on IS, are talk about below.

Power Distance (PD)

PD has to do with the amount to which uneven sharing of authority and wealth are tolerate. This can be strong-minded by the level of pecking order in workplaces and coldness flanked by social strata. Malaysia ranks low on Hofstede’s scale showing that they hold large distance between ranks in an organization; infrastructure are likely to be through the command chain rather than direct. Israel is at the other end of Hofstede’s scale, meaning that Israelis are very democratic; a worker can normally come near her boss and subordinate versa (Newman, 1996; Red path, 1997; Schneider & Barsoux, 1997). The affects of PD on IS has been studied by many. Myers and Tan (2002) provide a all-inclusive review of various information systems and the effect Hofstede’s magnitude were set up to have on them. In adding up, PD has also been originating to affect the design of websites and user interface (UI). Marcus and Gould (2000) show a website of a university in Malaysia (high PD) presents and focuses on power symbols, whereas an equivalent website of a Dutch university (low PD) focuses on the students and displays the ways with which they are empowered. For example, it offers a virtual tour on campus using a Webcam. Jones & Alony

In terms of IS usage, the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for interpersonal communication can be interpreted in different ways by the different cultures. A culture such as Malaysia, which holds a high power distance index in its organization, could benefit from the introduction of ICT as communication means. As email communication is perceived as less intrusive (Kraut & Attewell, 1997), the use of ICT could promote inter-rank communication. However, negative social effects from the use of email as a communication tool, despite individual effort; training and technological development (Markus, 1994) could mitigate the affect. Exploratory research would provide further insight into this matter. More egalitarian cultures, such as Australia, could experience the opposite if forced to use ICT for inter-rank communication. Communication via ICT might be perceived as a more distant and therefore less favorable. This view is supported by Ali, Pascoe and Warne (2002), as participants in their study of an organizational culture in Australia preferred person-to-person contact to technology-facilitated contact. Since Australia holds a low PD, the same results would apply for communication with supervisors.

Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)

UA is the extent to which people are threatened by a lack of structure or by uncertain events. It refers to the way that people will deal with the future, whether they have inherent control, or whether events are beyond their control (fatalism). People with low UA will require structure and order with clear rules and guidelines. Hofstede found Greece to have the lowest UA score. Therefore, people in Greece will be reluctant to make decisions and they will require very structured work routines. Swedes on the other hand can work well without structure and will have a high tolerance for ambiguity (Newman, 1996; Redpath, 1997; Schneider & Barsoux, 1997; Smith, 1998). Steensma, Marino, Weaver, and Dickson (2000) found UA plays a role in

how small firms form technology alliances. Small companies deal with two types of uncertainty: relational uncertainty, derived from the risk of partnering, and technological uncertainty, derived from the risks involved in technology itself. Steensma et al. (2000) found that firms from high UA (“uncertainty avoiding”) are more likely to pursue technology alliances to avoid uncertainty.

Firms from low UA (“uncertainty-tolerant”) were more likely to address the risks of uncertainty without the formation of a technological alliance. UA has been shown to influence the planning and implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) (Shanks, Parr, Hu, Corbitt et al., 2000). In a comparative study of US and Chinese implementation of ERP, Shanks et al. (2000) found more planning and attention to detail in the Chinese company. More emphasis was put on data accuracy in the new ERP system by the Chinese company. The writers suggested the reason was not necessarily culturally based, but rather due to previous experiences with problematic data. However, the role of culture cannot be excluded. In a study of technology acceptance model (TAM) across cultures, Straub, Keil, and Brenner (1997) found UA differentiates between how different cultures accept new information technology. This study shows TAM explains technology acceptance within cultures such as Sweden and U.S., but not the Japanese culture. UA is not the only difference in index between the three cultures. Straub et al (1997) provide an explanation that involves UA, PD, IC and MF. Dependency on IS brings another dimension of uncertainty and risk. Possible threats are theft, loss, corruption of data, destruction, and denial of service (Ciampa, 2005). Consequences involve loss of availability, legal liability and financial losses. These can be detrimental to the organization’s survival (Ciampa, 2005). All these risks can be mitigated, but a cost is associated with this mitigation. It is expected that businesses with low tolerance for risk would invest more in the mitigation of these processes. Further research on how the various cultures address such threats could provide additional insight. While these four dimensions, originally elucidated by Hofstede, provide researchers and practitioners a practical means of identifying and dealing with cultural differences in the context of information systems. Hofstede’s schema is not the only analytical framework available, as well, it is not necessarily the best. It is introduced here to provide a glimpse of the potential influences that culture can play in this global environment. In addition, while various cultural differences are explicated here, culture may not be the only reason for these differences. More research is needed in all of these areas to determine causal effects more decisively.

Culture and processes

The characterization of organizations as pyramids, well-oiled machines, village markets, and family tribes, and the structural correlates are further reflected in the organizational processes. In effect, structures are similar to fossils, as they bear the traces of organizational processes over time. Thus the influence of culture can also be seen in organizational processes such as the nature of policies and procedures, plan­ning and control, information processing and communication, and decision-making.

Systems and controls

Control systems also reflect different cultural assumptions regarding relationships with people (in terms of power and human nature) and relationship with nature (uncertainty and control). This reflects different attitudes towards power.

Strategy models: Controlling model

The 'controlling' model can be characterized as centralized and formalized. Top man­agement may call in expert consultants to assist in devising strategies. Formal strategic planning units may be established to devise plans to be submitted to top management or the board for deliberation. Formal scanning units may also exist that are responsible for tracking environmental events.

Task 4

International Manager:

Global competition has forced businesses to change how they manage at home and abroad. The increasing rate of change, technological advances, shorter product life cycles, and high-speed communications are all factors that contribute to these changes. The new management approach focuses on establishing a new communication system that features a high level of employee involvement. Organizational structures must also be flexible enough to change with changing market conditions. Ongoing staff development programs and design-control procedures, which are understandable and acceptable, are outcomes from this new approach. Management values are changing, and managers must now have a vision and be able to communicate the vision to everyone in the firm.

Interpersonal skills:

Interpersonal skills are all the behaviors and feelings that exist within all of us that influence our interactions with others. Whether we are shy or bold, quiet or passive, domineering or cooperative are all different examples of characteristics of interpersonal skills. How do we develop our interpersonal skills? We don’t really… at least not consciously. These skills are learned from watching our parents, the television and our peers. Children imitate in an attempt to learn. Most of what we believe to be true about ourselves and the world around us, we do not stop and examine. It is only when problems arise that we are given a glimpse into our interpersonal skills and the potential for change that exists.

Healthy interpersonal skills reduce stress, reduce conflict, improve communication, enhance intimacy, increase understanding, and promote joy.

Language

The use of language may represent the most visible yet the least understood influence on our world-view. It is through language that we formulate thoughts and that we experience the world and others. Language determines what we see and fail to see, what we say and omit to say, and who is allowed to say what. It therefore influences both our relationship with the environment and our relationships with other people.

Time

Assumptions about time also influence our relationship with the environment and with people.

Time is seen as 'monochromic', structured in a sequential and linear fashion. Managers from these countries typically expect to have appointments scheduled in hour or half-hour slots.

Cultural attitudes to time also differ in the relative importance accorded to past, present, and fishier.

Time orientation also influences attitudes to change. This means that the present and the future are determined by what has happened in the past.

Patience and respect:

It may also be true that certain issues will not present immediate solutions, and an impasse will be reached regarding such issues. Impasse is the point within a dispute in which the parties are unable to perceive effective solutions. People feel stuck, frustrated, angry, and disillusioned. As a result, they might either dig their heels in deeper, anchoring themselves in extreme and rigid positions, or they might decide to "take their marbles and go home," withdrawing from negotiation. Either way, impasse represents a turning point in our efforts to negotiate a solution to the conflict. As such, rather than avoiding or dreading it, impasse should be viewed with calm, patience, and respect.

At such times, it is important to refocus efforts on the underlying needs, interests and concerns of the conflict:

What do I really need here?

What are my desired outcomes of this discussion?

What are my alternatives (BATNA, WATNA, MLATNA) if I decide to withdraw from further negotiations?

Does impasse mean that we have to forget about the other issues we need to discuss, as well as other solutions we have already negotiated?

These are all important questions to keep in mind, so you may remain focused on your priorities in a realistic manner. Collaborative efforts to negotiate solutions to conflicts are not necessarily driven by shared goals or concerns; indeed, you may have very different 'visions' for the organization, even if you work together. But you may still find it worthwhile to negotiate together because the alternatives are more costly. In the end, your decision regarding whether or not to continue negotiating will be based upon self-interest and your best opportunities to meet your needs.

A number of strategies for managing impasse exist, and each may be considered for its potential contribution to your specific situation. As you seek to navigate this tricky stage of the process, be sure to check your own energy along the way. As appropriate, take breaks (a few minutes, a few days - whatever is appropriate) in order to regain your energy and focus for the challenge. Try not to view such breaks as complete opportunities to withdraw from the negotiation process; rather, we should structure these times between conversations as opportunities for reflection, examination of the true needs of the situation, and consideration of possible alternatives that we may have been reluctant to consider in the heat of the moment.

If you are working with a third party mediator or facilitator, breaks may also provide an opportunity to "caucus" in separate meetings that allow you to gain perspective on your frustrations and other resentments towards the other party. By taking such reflective time, you return to the conversation with a clearer sense of your commitment, as well as parameters that exist for you at this time.

The word “empathy” means a sharing of feelings. Cultural empathy means that a person has an awareness and understanding of the cultural attributes of a given society and how they differ from his or her own culture. One who is empathetic will tend to be more accepting of differences rather than seeing them as good or bad, right or wrong. This will lead to a better acceptance of the empathetic person into the new cultural setting. Empathy is sometimes compared to sympathy. But, there is a difference between the two. And from an international business perspective, in my opinion, empathy does not have many similarities sympathy. Empathy is about seeing the differences and understanding the other person, his situation, how he thinks, and how he reacts. In business situations you usually empathize with someone without sympathy. And this helps you to create stronger business relationships with international clients.

Strong sense of self:

Yet a strong sense of self is not about selfishness, or self-absorption. A terrible excuse for bad behavior is “I was just being myself.” A sense of self recognizes not only one’s strength, but one’s weaknesses and what Jung called the dark side. The objective isn’t to “be yourself.” The challenge is to “be your best self.” That requires recognizing and eliminating or improving our vices and weaknesses. Being one’s self is never a legitimate excuse for being less good to other’s than one is capable of being.

A sense of self does not close a person off to the opinions of others. Suggestions and insights, especially from those who know us well and whom we trust, are valuable for our personal growth. What a sense of self does is steel us against the unnecessary suffering criticism and feedback often cause. While we all thought well of Mauricio, I doubt it would have bothered him the least if one of us had been critical of him. He might have benefited from some instruction offered, but his feelings wouldn’t have been hurt.

A sense of self is what makes us truly unique. It recognizes both similarities and differences. It allows us to see what we share with others as well as those things that are true only of ourselves or of few others.

Sense of self is the foundation for the construction of a life, and for being a stable leader. While we are continually learning and sometimes revising what we know of ourselves, we are building our lives and relationships on this foundation. Leaders, like Marico, have a clearly defined and strong sense of self.

Sense of humor:

Human resource management policies are vital for organizations especially like RE who are serious about resolving personnel issues and finding hr solutions. Absolute hr solutions provide clients with professional human resource advice, human resource policy solutions and job description writing and evaluation services.

If you are a proponent of the belief that employees are an organization's most important resource, the Human Resources Policy can save you thousands of dollars in turnover, productivity losses, attorney and consultant fees and lawsuits.

Human resource management policies

Human resource management policies are vital for organizations especially like RE who are serious about resolving personnel issues and finding hr solutions. Absolute hr solutions provide clients with professional human resource advice, human resource policy solutions and job description writing and evaluation services.

If you are a proponent of the belief that employees are an organization's most important resource, the Human Resources Policy can save you thousands of dollars in turnover, productivity losses, attorney and consultant fees and lawsuits.

Drawing up HRM Plan

The HRM Plan developed under the leadership of the senior management

Department's strategic direction clearly articulated by the top team

HR actions to address HR issues debated, approved and prioritized by the top team

Staff's input on ongoing HR issues sought through, for example, staff opinion survey, focus group meetings, interviews, etc

Specific objectives and sets of actions clearly spelt out in the HRM Plan and clearly explained as to how each will help address certain HR issues in achieving departmental Vision and Mission,

Manpower Planning

A systematic information system in place

A clear plan with action programmer in place to bridge supply and demand gaps, succession gaps, and competency gaps

Posting policy published and career paths made known to staff

Competency profiles of key job grades developed and made known to staff

Performance Management System

Trade union performance management

RE decide to structure relations with staff is an important decision. If recognize a trade union, it will benefit of business if enjoy a good working relationship with them. May also benefit from union expertise on issues such as health and safety, drawing up disciplinary procedures, training, etc.

Senior management's support and commitment in allocating the required resources and according priority to this function

Objective setting starting from the top and systematically cascaded and linked to the departmental objectives

All appraisers have been properly trained on PMS good practices and the required skills

Mechanisms to ensure openness, fairness and objectivity of the appraisal process

The system being competency-based to help identify training and development needs for staff and their potential for taking up higher responsibilities

Service Quality Enhancement

Customer focused culture as reflected in programmers, policies, procedures and practices

Productivity and efficiency enhanced

Measurement in place to track performance improvement

Mode of operation being service oriented

Public image enhanced

Customer focused culture as reflected in programmers, policies, procedures and practices

Productivity and efficiency enhanced

Measurement in place to track performance improvement

Mode of operation being service oriented

Public image enhanced

Task 5

Compete:

Compete manages the largest panel of its kind in the industry, combining the online behaviors and attitudes from 2 million consumers across the United States. Our online panel is comprised of a statistically representative cross-section of consumers who have given permission to have their internet click stream behaviors and opt-in survey responses analyzed anonymously as a new source of marketing research. The Compete panel is several times larger than traditional panels, which means that we help clients measure and benefit from more insights.

Collaboration:

Some of the most important forms of professional learning and problem solving occur in group settings within schools and school districts. Organized groups provide the social interaction that often deepens learning and the interpersonal support and synergy necessary for creatively solving the complex problems of teaching and learning. And because many of the recommendations contained in these standards advocate for increased teamwork among teachers and administrators in designing lessons, critiquing student work, and analyzing various types of data, among other tasks, it is imperative that professional learning be directed at improving the quality of collaborative work.

Staff development provides teachers and administrator’s appropriate knowledge and skills regarding group processes to ensure various teams, committees, and departments within schools achieve their goals and provide satisfying and rewarding experiences for participants. Because acquisition of this knowledge and skill has not typically been a part of educators' professional preparation and because leaders often underestimate its importance, it is essential that professional learning focused on helping educators work together successfully be given a high priority. Organized groups usually go through several stages in their development as participants come together, begin to know one another at deeper levels, get clear about the group's purpose and ground rules, surface and address the inevitable conflict that such work elicits, and become effective at performing the group's work in a manner that satisfies both the task and interpersonal expectations of participants. It is important that participants understand that these phases are a natural part of group development and that they be given opportunities to learn strategies for addressing problems that arise along the way. Outside facilitators can be helpful to groups as they navigate these unfamiliar waters.

Compromise:

A compromise is a negotiation between two or more parties, either individuals or groups which helps to reach a mutually agreed upon decision. Essential to the idea of a mutual agreement is that each person/group participating in the agreement must make the decision to surrender some of the things he/she/they would want in order to hopefully get the things most desired. Compromise exists in all aspects of life: in matters of business, relationships, and so on. Even personally, an individual may have to compromise with him or herself in order to reach the most workable arrangements for pursuing a life.

Task 6

Creating a sense of purpose-

Always be honest when communicating. You never have a chance to get your integrity back.

Be consistent. You can’t say one thing one day and totally shift gears the next day. You have to be ‘on-message’ and clear. You have to be consistent and visionary.

People want to aspire to something, so when you’re talking about things, you have to be inspirational. ‘We’re going to make the best widget in the world’ isn’t so inspirational, but how people are going to benefit from that widget, that’s where the aspiration comes in and makes people excited.

People want to find value in what they’re doing. I just had a young woman who I met a year ago, right as she was graduating college. She was going to move to New Jersey and work in a large pharmaceutical company in corporate finance.

She was all thrilled she was a corporate finance major, and she reached out to me after eight months and she said, ‘Get me out of here.’ She was in an organization where she sat in a cubicle and people counseled her on her career in terms of decades, like, ‘Don’t mess up here, and in five years, you might get to be a director-level person.’

It wasn’t inspiring, it wasn’t a meritocracy, she knew wasn’t going anywhere, she was surrounded by 20-year veterans who were completely unmotivated, just doing their jobs and getting the heck out of there. There was nothing to look forward to, predominantly for young people, who probably aren’t looking at their lives in terms of decades.

They expect to have many jobs in their careers. You have to give them something that says, ‘This is really, really cool; this is changing the way people are doing things, and your role in this is really important.’

You have to tell them that if you do a good job, it doesn’t substance how old you are or how long you’ve worked here, if you’re worthy of a encouragement or management role, you’re going to get it.

arrangement the task-

The practice structure must be developed within the guiding principles and constraints of the practice framework in which the practice resides. When structuring a practice, resist the temptation to enter complete descriptions into the defined method elements. Instead, just name and briefly describe the elements and enter a few outline details, if they help to more clearly describe the element's basic classification.  When structuring a practice, be sure to look for opportunity to leverage existing information in core elements and/or in other practices. If you find existing method elements in another follow that you would like to share, work with the method architects to get the widespread in order moved to the core where it can be shared. the same method rudiments should be distinct to make the most of reuse. If while structure a follow you define an component that can be common across practices, it ought to be distinct in in the core where it can be shared, in its place of in the put into practice. 

Assigning roles and household tasks

Quaker administrative is a exceptionally spiritual process. "To discover what we really want as compared to what at first we think we want, we must go below the surface of egotistical desires to the deeper level where the real Self resides. The genuine Self of all is that Self which we share with all others. This is the one Vine of which we all are brushwood the Life of God on which our own individual lives are base To will what God wills is, consequently, to will what we ourselves really want."

While he is careful to explain the historical background of Quaker process, Howard Brinton makes it clear that the requisite inspiration and insight is not restricted to a few. "In religion as in discipline we do not start from nonentity. The doctrine of the Light Within does not mean that a person must depend only on his own gauge of Light. As in discipline we do not wait for everyone to be a Newton or a Darwin, so in religion we do not expect everyone to be a Paul or a Fox. The religious genius, like the scientific genius, must be allowed to give to those who are not genius the full gauge of leadership."

It can be said that it takes a team to deliver a project....But a team that lacks focus and direction will have a much rougher road to success.  Pave the way with a clear definition of roles and responsibilities. 

Within a project, assigned "roles and responsibilities" define the physical relationships between the project team and the work that has to be done. Project work is most often multi-dimensional, require a mixture of skills and behavior for planning, implementation and conclusion.  In order to ensure that person project tasks and deliverables are completed as desirable  it is wise to undoubtedly define every key development action in terms of roles and household tasks.

This may take a bit of effort, but there are many benefits to be realized ...

Defined roles and everyday jobs create a roadmap for players involvement and association

Defined role and daily jobs set clear prospect for team member diminish disagreement and confusion

Defined roles and everyday jobs facilitate scheme organization and forces prearranged thoughts.

Defined role and everyday jobs offers arrangement and constancy from side to side scheme team transition ... new team members are not simply replacing a person, they are satisfying a role, and implementation everyday jobs


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