The key factors of Human Resources Management
Human Resources Management as key factors for organisation change and development for achieving goals and objectives of the organisation. The change and development depends upon the performance of the human resources. The effective and efficient performance always leads and directed towards achieving the organisational goal. For abstracting the effective and efficient performance from the human capital Motivation is also the key factors for increasing the better performance. According to Twyla Dell (1988), core of motivation is to provide people what they really want most from work they do. Motivation drives human resources towards doing work, which they wanted to do. It creates inner willingness in the employee for better performance. This comes like Newton's third law of motion. The more they are given, the more you expect to do from them namely as quality, productivity and service
This is the age of globalisation and the market environment is highly competitive. Those organisation which, can be able to motivate highly to their employee they are always ahead even, though the ways of motivation is through various ways. Motivation according to Higgins (1994), "Is an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need". Highly motivated and satisfied employees are more productive than apathetic employees. Motivation induced employee to work efficient, which also leads to the increasing production and productivity. Motivated people give the best at work and they are satisfied them self for doing the job, which reduces the high employee turnover into the lower as well as absenteeism.
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The researcher has chosen Yo Sushi Restaurant chain which is doing excellent business since 11 years, over 60 restaurants not only in the UK but also across the globe. Yo! Sushi having more than 1500 employees across UK is leading the market selling freshly prepared sushi and other delicious foods sushi all over the world.
There exists competitive rivalry as Wasabi, Itsu, Wagamama and others, which is serving Japanese foods to customers of London and other places simultaneously. This is a great threat for Yo Sushi so to overcome these threats, Yo Sushi has to motivate its staffs to attract new customers as well not increase turnover from the company to compete in the global market.
Aims and objectives of the research are as follows.
To identify the role of reward in motivation.
To evaluate relationship between motivation and performance.
To analyse role of teamwork in motivation.
Managerial implication on motivation of staffs for better performance.
The research consists of some research questions which a researcher is aims to find the solution. Those research questions are as follows.
List the ways to motivate staff within a company?
Is staff promotion related to motivation?
Is staff promotion related to job satisfaction?
Does motivation helps in improving employee performance?
2. Literature Review: 1000
Ahmed et. al. (2010) during the case study revealed that motivational factors play the vital role in increasing employee job satisfaction. Satisfied employees then help in the improvement of organisational performance.
Reward and motivation
Adam (2007) says that if successful completion of the high level of rewarded then greater motivation is achieved. In this situation, not only does a person feel that he or she has a choice in the undertaking of a project but also chooses the level of commitment to that task reward becomes unexpected on high level completion rather than just completion. Batt (2002), Fessler (2003) and Gibbs (2004) have argued on Adam (2007) statements. It could actually have a negative effect on satisfaction and productivity according to Gibbs (2004). Whereas Fesser (2003) found that incentive based on compensation such as monetary bonuses did not always increase task performance. He adds that as the employees motivation was lowered feeling less motivation to perform a task suggesting that the task was only worth doing for a monetary incentive, rather than for its own sake. A similar conclusion was made by Batt (2002), that bonus schemes that relied purely on monetary rewards without concurrent positive enhancement programs did not achieve greater employee commitment, loyalty or performance lacking motivation in better performance. Forsyth (2006 pg.1) adds that incentive is directly linked with best results so work incentives are important to him as he further add that payment should be ealisy calculated, regular and short term. From all the statements the researcher cannot be sure that rewards and bonuses are directly linked with motivation rather it also seems that it didn't worked out well. All writers are right with their viewpoint but the researcher needs to find the actual situation in Yo Sushi restaurant if reward will motivate its staffs but the researcher himself as an employee finds reward as motivating factor.
Motivation and Team work
Kirrin and Oliver (2002), Hodson (2002,) suggested that rewards enhance performance in a team environment both individually and in the team as a whole. They add that effective team building is based on both its structural elements and its process elements. Rewards in the team environment can be highly motivating to team members but based upon the principle of team building are more effective when the use and distribution of reward is left up to team members. Yoke (2006), also suggests that a good teamwork of staffs makes a difference which translate a business goals into a personal value. Berman (1999), also suggest the same concept which says "to achieve productivity, employers need to motivate their employees to work as a team toward specific goals".Poustma, Hendrickx and Hujgen (2003) believe that whilst employee participation in the workplace is extremely important both for employee satisfaction and for organisational performance. Lawler (1990) also, found that participation influences motivation because it increases the amount of information that people have on the expected workers and it helps people to see the relationship between performance and outcomes.
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Likert (1967), argued that an overall philosophy of management that emphasis a participative approach is positively related to employee motivation and performance. He characterised management approaches on a continuum from authorisation to democratic. In democratic, management has confidence and trust in workers. Broek (2004) also argued team working when she and her colleagues had a research on implantation of teams in Australian and Scottish call centres. Based on interviews with employees, they reported that despite the division of employees into self-contained teams, there was no evidence of task interdependence or autonomy that allowed for decentralised decision making that typifies a self manages team. This then ended up with employee isolation and dissatisfaction, which did not increase goodwill between team members and had a negative impact on productivity. The researcher has a view that a good teamwork will enhance the performance of the employees. This is because only difficulties get solved with a proper and good teamwork which will definitely motivate staffs in better performance.
Job Satisfaction/ Workplace
Kim (2002) explains that participation by both managers and employees is vital to satisfaction in the workplace. According to him, the ability to participate is meaningfully at work increases job satisfaction because people who feel their works of value to their organisation are more likely to be motivated itself to perform. He also adds that job satisfaction is significantly higher among employees whose supervisors had a greater participatory management style and who possessed clearer communication abilities among those who were better able to participate in strategic planning process. He also adds that there is lower chances of turnover and recommend that organisational commitment to change processes should encompass management training programs that focus on the development of managerial participatory styles and communication ability. It may be quite effective in creating a motivating environment for certain staffs allowing them to make certain modifications to the traditional work place schedule or location. It might be allowing staffs an opportunity for flexible time scheduling or ability to work from home, according to Staren (2009 pg. 74-77). According to Grant (2007, pg. 393), the structure of the job design plays the vital role in motivating people for better performance and employees relationship with others. Hence workplace greatly effect in the performance and motivation in the work.
There are various literatures, which can be found related to motivation prescribed by various writers. Some of the major laws on motivation are as follows.
Maslow's Need Hierarchy
According to this theory, Abraham Maslow (1943) has purposed a hierarchy of five needs; physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualisation.
Figure 1. Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation
Maslow's need hierarchy presents natural and priority order of needs. His approach is very simple, direct and practical. This hierarchical concept of needs helps the management in understanding the human behaviour of people at work. It points out that the people are motivated by unfulfilled needs. Once a particular need is satisfied, it cases to be a motivating factor. He has pointed out that lower needs are satisfied, upper level needs replace them and become important. A man in never satisfied if one need is satisfied the other needs arises. However he has pointed that this hierarchy of needs is not rigid and fixed in order and it is not same for all people. After the complete understanding of Maslow's theory, the researcher now try to explore the concept of motivation in the light of Herzberg which is more open and lose than Maslow's theory.
Herzberg's Motivation Hygiene Theory
According to Frederick Herzberg (1966), there are two motivators as one leading to satisfaction with job like promotion, interesting work and other decreasing dissatisfaction with job as pay level, job security. Motivator factors are suggested by this theory on the impact of personal and work perception. The theory concludes that intrinsic motivational factors are having relationship with employee job satisfaction, where as hygiene (extrinsic) factors are not having any significant relationship with employee job satisfaction. Moreover significant difference was observed between gender, qualification, experience, job characteristics and job satisfaction.
Research Methodology 1000
The principle in which data is gathered, analysed and used is called research philosophy. There are three philosophies according to Saunders, Lewis & Thronhill (2006), they are Positivism, Intrpritism and Realism. All philosophies are equally important for a researcher in all aspects as he is doing a research on motivation of employees in a Yo Sushi restaurant.
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Positivists refer to the phenomena to be studied without interfering, the believe with stable reality which can also be observed from an objective perspective according to Levin (1988). The researcher is concentrated on quantitative (positivist) analysis since surveys and findings come with numeric data. The researcher has to go through different facts, figures and quantifiable data.
Human feelings and emotions which are difficult for impossible to quantify, the researcher tends to use qualitative (anti positivist) method.
The researcher who is doing research on employee motivation in Yo Sushi restaurant has to go through different type questionnaires, questions, findings, observations and survey. The method becomes mix up of two philosophies is called pragmatism where same result is obtained even if different methods are used to collect data for same conclusion. The main reason to use this philosophy is that it reduces biases and multiple sources of data are used to investigate the same phenomenon in this research.
Generally two approaches are used as described in Research Union of Saunders (2009). Both approaches are equally applicable for the researcher as he is using different methods to collect data. The researcher is using hypothesis test, interviews, observations and questionnaires.
Qualitative and Quantitative
The researcher aims to research on staff motivation so he needs to use quantitative approach. He has to use facts and figures with questionnaire, which will lead to the statistical data, and also researcher uses a hypothesis test on whether staffs are motivated or not in his research so quantifying data's will be used. Quantitative research interviews used to get quantifiable data.
The researcher is aiming to research on how to motivate staffs in Yo Sushi restaurant. Firstly, focus group method was chosen to be applied for the research but with some consideration, focus group found to be difficult since the restaurant is busy every time and problem arise with shortage of staffs during working hours. Finally one-to-one interview approach can hopefully be best approach to reach about 10 branches of Yo Sushi Restaurant situated inside London meeting every staff available. This will lead to get almost 50 respondents' altogether with questionnaire.
Mixed method Approach
The mixture of two methods quantitative and qualitative is called mixed method approach. The researcher aims to use both the methods to get accurate results and also to reduce bias since researcher will get qualitative data from interview method where as statistical data will be received from questionnaire. Hence to reduce the bias, the researcher is aiming to use the mixed method approach.
Inductive and Deductive Approach
Fig A. Types of Research approaches
Generally two major approaches are used in the research. They are inductive and deductive approach. The researcher will use deductive approach because the researcher will use different theories and ideas
Deductive Approach from general to more specific and has top down approach.
The researcher will use four different strategies to get an objective of dissertation. Since there are four research strategies like survey, experiment, grounded theory and case study. According to the researcher in fulfilling an objective, survey will be implemented in the research.
Kinnear and Taylor (1996) defines marketing research is much concerned with gathering data on the same day which could lead to future objectives. Survey is interactive where personal interview, telephone and computer questionnaires are performed. The researcher who aims to use personal interview with some staffs and questionnaire so survey is the right process to collect data for the research. It is cheaper and good response rate with quick results hence this process will be appropriate for the researcher. There are also some other processes like Grounded theory, Experiment, case study, which definitely becomes expensive to research on. In grounded theory the research is done in almost reverse fashion than in traditional one so researcher need to know about all techniques. Case study might have some unscientific touch. Experiment is not applicable for the researcher since Yo Sushi is very big company.
The researcher aim to do the survey with Yo Sushi members so as it becomes impossible to do more in numbers, the researcher aims to choose sample which signify the wider population. According to Cameron and Price (2009), the data must be representative of wider population. There are two types of sampling methods as probability and non-probability.
Probability and Non Probability
As the researcher is taking a 50 samples from 1500 employees across, the data cannot be collected through entire population but able to make statistical implication from sample data. The researcher aims to use Stratified sampling because it reduces sampling error and is also easier than random sampling. According to Saunders (2009), there is the need of making inference from the selected sample about a population to answer research questions which are mostly used in survey based research strategies where as non sampling is a judgmental sampling process mostly used in market survey. Sample data received will be separated into relevant group like age group, position, branch etc. Hence accurate and easily accessible data will be received. Probability method consists of random, systematic and stratified sampling. In probability, sampling error can be calculated. For more about the two types of sampling, please see appendix D.
The quality of data makes a lot of difference by quality of researched data hence the sample size should not create any problem in getting the data accurate. The more the data is received greater precision or reliability and practical data is perceived though it effects on time constraint, cost and difficulties in collecting data. So with all considerations, the researcher aims to take sample size around 50 including floor staffs, Back of house members, supervisors and managers of 10 branches of Yo Sushi restaurant situated inside London.
Methods of Data Collection
According to Hall and Hall, 1996, the methods used for data collection for social research are interview, questionnaire survey, observation, and use of documents and secondary data. The method of data collection will be affected by many factors but the research methodology that provides the framework for the study is one of the most important (Sarantakos, 1993). Since the author is using mixed methodology has been chosen, it is likely that the researcher will use methods like interview, questionnaire survey, and use of secondary data available in the internet as well as different books provided from Yo Sushi during contract.
Those data which are directly collected by the researcher during the research purpose using different techniques is called primary data. These data are collected from the observations and experience for the research project using hypothesis or any research findings. The researcher conducts different techniques to collect data as a survey, questionnaire and interview.
A questionnaire is a set of questions for respondents to complete themselves (Newell, 1993). Each respondent is distributed the same nature of questions in the same order. Due to this practice, the questioning is semi-structured as well as questions will be based on open-end with some open comment section for the descriptive results. Hence deviation in people's responses can be attributed to actual variations and not deviating too much in asking questions. The researcher aims to use questionnaire because by it, the quantitative data can be achieved from structured questions and qualitative with descriptive results from open-end section.
According to Kahn and Cannell (1957), interview is a determined on the basis of communication between two or more. The researcher aims to use semi-structured interview getting statistical data where as in-depth interview lead to achieve descriptive data. Interviews are generally time consuming but give depth knowledge for a researcher who aim to research and wish to get accurate data from only 10 branch managers whom he will take an interview. Since here are over 60 branches world-wide, it is not possible to reach all branches and hence aims to reach only 10 branches where he will include some staffs of different levels like floor staffs, kitchen staffs, supervisors and managers individually.
The other types of interviews like structured and unstructured interview is not appropriate for the researcher because in structured interview the questions are structured and standardise where result will be quantifiable and
4.6.2 Secondary Data
There are various sources of secondary data like research papers, periodicals, encyclopaedias, published researches, database companies.
The primary data which are collected using different techniques are rated in percentages and hence the total percentage of the entire respondents is then analysed using computer software. Since there are more than 50 respondents, the researcher aims to use computer software Statistical Package for Service Solution (SPSS) to reduce bias.
Timescales 150-200 (150)
The researcher aims to finish the research within three months time starting from the month of October hoping to get the final research by end of December. The researcher has divided each task with one week period. Hence all together the researcher aims to get result in hand within three months period. To ensure that the research meets the necessary time constraints a table has been developed to provide the clean vision on the plan of the researcher to carry out different tasks (Appendix G). It is then carried out with a Gantt chart on the basis of weekly task distribution of research on Staff Motivation in Yo Sushi (Appendix H).
The researcher has to be more professional during sixth week of the final research since he has to meet different branch heads to interview and to tackle with them getting the right information about the staff and their facilities.
Suitability 100 (157)
It's pretty sure that Yo Sushi is doing an excellent business with sushi business but the researcher himself being an employee, aims to research on how the staff is going through in the current situation whether they are satisfied with the management or needs to be motivated for better performance. The researcher also likes to explore role of reward in motivation, to evaluate relationship between motivation and performance, to analyse role of teamwork in motivation and for the managerial implication on motivation of staffs for better performance. The researcher has completed Edexcel Level 7 BTEC Advance Professional Diploma in Management Studies from Edexcel Board in May 2009. During his Advance Professional Diploma interesting areas covered was Human Resource Management which inspired him on taking Human Resource as subject for his final stage of Degree program. The writer works in back of house member in Yo Sushi Restaurant which is a Japanese food based restaurant in the UK.
6. Issues 300-400
There are certain issues that the researcher must consider and be aware of during the research. The most important issue is the ethical requirements which have to be properly within the professional environment. The research takes place bear in mind. Higher degree by research students should be aware of their ethical requirements within the professional area and practice, and of the ethical demands that arise from new knowledge generated by research in the area. If the thesis should require direct interaction with human
7.1 Book References:
Cascio, W. F. (2010) Managing Human Resources: Productivity, Quality of Work life, Profits- 8th Edition, McGraw Hill Publication, USA
Creswell, J. W. (2007) Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches, 2nd Edition, USA, Sage Publication.
Human Relations in Organisations, Applications and skill buildings- Robert N Lussier Mcgraw- Hill International Edition, 7th Edition, 2010, USA
Human Resource Management, A Concise Analysis, Eugence McKenna, Nic Beach, FT Printice Hall, 2nd Edition. 2008, UK
Kurt W. Mortensen (2008) Persuasion IQ: The 10 Skills You Need to Get Exactly What You Want
Management Research: Theory and Practice - Mark Easterby Smith, Richard Thorpe, Paul R Jackson, 3rd Edition, Sage Publication, 2008, UK
Managing People in organisations, Contemporary theory and practice- Jeremy Adams, 2007, Palgrave Macmillan, UK.
Marketing Research- A Practical Approach- Bonita Kolb, Sage Publication, UK, 2008
Marketing Research- Tools & Techniques- Nigel Bradley- 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, 2010, USA
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009), Research Methods for Business Students (4th ed.) Harlow, England: FT Prentice Hall
Shrestha, K. N (2006) Human Resource Management: New Edition, Nepal, Nabin Prakashan
Strategic Human Resource Management 2nd Edition, Randall S. Schuler & Susan E. Jakson, Blackwell Publishing, 2007, UK
The Handbook of Human Services Management- Rino J. Patti- 2nd Edition, Sage Publication, 2009, USA
Twyla Dell, 2002, Business, The Ultimate resource, Bloomsbury Publication, UK
Ahmed et. al. (2010) International Journal of Business and Management- Effects of Motivational Factors on Employees Job Satisfaction, Vol. 5, No. 3
Yoke, C. (2006) Network World, Issue 30, pg. 33
Forsyth, P. (2006) Engineering Management-Motivate Your Staff, Feb. 2006, Vol. 16, Issue 1, pg. 1
Eileen L. Berman (1999) - Industrial Management, Vol. 41, Iss-5, pg. 5
Edgar D. Staren, Physician Executive- Optimising Staff Motivation (2009) Vol. 35 Issue. 4 pg 74-77
Grant, A. D. (2007) Academy of Management Review- Relational Job Design and the Motivation to make Prosocial Difference, Vol. 32, No. 2, pg. 393
Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation, New York: Wiley.
Hunt, N. (1997) Conducting Staff Appraisals- How to Manage the process for the benefit of both organization and its individual members, 3rd Edition, UK, How to Books Ltd.
Jay, R. (2003) How to Write Proposals & Reports that Get Results, UK, Pearson Prentice Hall
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