The impact of hrm on hrm functions
Every managers of a particular firm has to be aware of all the functions of HR department. If they don't follow those functions it will create problems for existing employees which may directly affect the organizational objectives. And thus the reputation of the organization will go down which is never good for that particular organization.
MODELS OF HRM
Two models of HRM are important and also influential for the interpretation.
The Matching model:-
In this model it's all about the objectives of organization, this model shows the link between HR policies and objectives of organization. It shows well rigidness between HR strategy and business strategy. There are 2 assumptions in this model:-
The way of managing people in the organization may differ or may depend upon organization's view point.
There should be unity among the employees and managers that is; their interest should not be differing from each other, as they are working together for organization's success.
This model is known as best fit model of HRM.
The Harvard model (Beer model):-
In this model, According to Beer, some of the situational factors inside and outside of the organizational environment may restrict HRM polices; or may influenced by those policies.
Shareholders have legitimate (legal) interest in the organization, Beer argued that HR policies made should reflect the shareholders interests. If not then that particular organization is failed.
These HR policies have both HR outcomes and long term consequences. All the HR outcomes are very comprehensive and in a long run these outcomes will reach to consequences for individual, society, effectiveness of organization. Thus finally HRM policy should fir in long term consequences.
Employee groups Government
Business strategy and conditions
Labour market unions
Phases in the HRM debate:-
Phases mean different kinds of interpretation and concern about HRM. In this phase there is a debate focused on HRM and personnel management.
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT AND FUNCTIONS:-
It is a management deals with effective control and the manpower as compared to other sources of power. Personnel management has 5 functions:-
Procurement function:- here function is to obtain proper quantity and kind of people in order to accomplish an organization's goals.
Development function:- provide proper training and developing the skill of employees.
Compensating function:- giving equal remuneration to the employees
Integration function:- integrate human resources with organization through job evaluation and enlargement , action programme's
Maintenance function:- maintaining health and safety measures, service programmes for employees of the organization.
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT VS HRM:-
Some say there is no difference between HRM and Personnel management. They are one and the same thing.
And others found some difference between personnel management and HRM they are as follows:-
Personnel management is the management of man power in order to achieve goals of the organization. HRM is concerned with the development of all the strategies and implement it in order to meet organizational objectives.
Personnel management is centred by workforce while HRM is centred by resources.
Personnel Management is an operational function while HRM is based on strategies to achieve competitive advantage.
HRM is proactive in nature while personnel management is maintaining the systems of administration.
HRM is all about for seeing the organizational needs , monitoring the personnel systems and the management of the change.
(B) ROLE OF STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN RELATION TO THE ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES:-
MEANING OF STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:-
In simple Strategic human resource management is the aligning HRM and the mission or objectives of the organization. Strategic human resource management bridges HRM and business strategy.
According to CIPD SHRM is:-
A complex process continuously developing, which is being considered and discussed by many academic's.
Its definition differs between writers with the other business strategies.
SHRM is a key element to achieve the objectives and performance of the organization. It is a mixture of whole HRM and business strategy.
ROLE OF SHRM CAN BE REGARDED AS:-
The management of HR, with the intention of providing direction to the organization, wherever it wants to take in future long run.
SHRM is a planned activity which affects the employees efforts to achieve the needs of business strategy.
SHRM explain how the organizational performance is influenced by HRM.
Thus, HRM is a management of people within the organization while SHRM is concerned about whether HRM is done in a planned manner which integrates organizational objectives.
SHRM does the management of all the resources in the organization.
SHRM AND BUSINESS PERFORMANCE:-
Business performance can not only improved by HR policies and strategies. But can also be improved by human capital or people who have good skills or are highly skilled, they are highly motivated, who have the equal opportunity in the organization, and who are responsible to their own work.
By doing this, will lead to high organizational performance levels. Also if these people have good relationship with their sub-ordinates and managers in a positive environment will change the behaviour of the people to perform their best effort which directly make the difference in the performance of the organization.
SHRM focuses on the development in the strategic infra structure of the organization
Thus, Firstly SHRM's role is to design the system of the organization in such a way so that it can achieve competitive advantage against its competitors.
Secondly, competitive advantage can be achieved only through the people or employees within the organization.
Finally, therefore competitive advantage of an organization leads itself to a superior performance.
Utilises the theory and knowledge of managing staff as a means of developing self improvement plans.
(A). DEFINITION OF HUMAN RESOURSE PLANNING:-
Human resource planning is the process for determining the present and future requirements of human resources, developing plans to implement these requirements and evaluating them. It also means right people in a right place at a right time.
Traditional and Contemporary approaches to human resource planning:-
It is all about the balance between demand and supply of human resources. Both demand and supply is opposite to each other. Demand means the requirement of human resources while supply means the availability of those human resources in or outside of an organization.
The process of HRP are as follows:-
1st stage:- Analyzing or Investigating.
This stage are divided into four parts internal factors, external factors, corporate capabilities, corporate strategy.
2nd stage:- Forecasting
In this stage it determines the balance in the demand and the supply of human resources in the organization.
3rd stage:- Planning
This stage includes HR functions, practices and policies, organization's structure, culture, and development.
4th stage:- Implementation
This is all about the HR strategies, technologies, review the policies and practices against the outcomes.
It differs from traditional approach as it focus on internal labour supply. From this approach we can estimate future surplus and shortage of workers in organization.
In this approach there are some key elements which are as follows:-
Business strategy can be deliberate strategies which is to evaluate the internal and external factors and to identify the best way to achieve competitive advantage.
DEMAND AND SUPPLY
LABOUR TURNOVER ANALYSIS
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANS
Resourcing Flexibility Retention Downsizing
This strategy comes from business strategy. So the main objective of this strategy is to ensure that whether the organization is achieving its competitive advantage.
This planning is used to replace the forecasting of demand and supply of labour. It can be formal or informal approach, as it foresee the future in broader terms, as it is likely changes in the internal and external environment.
Forecasting and labour turnover:-
Here it focuses on the labour turnover analysis but the techniques used here to measure is same as in traditional approach.
Human resource plan:-
Human resource plans has come from resourcing strategy. It is a data, combination of scenario planning, forecasting demand and supply, labour turnover analysis.
Further this plan is divided into 4 parts:-
Labour market model has two opposing models:-
Segmented models, and
Segmented models view the whole market by asking questions. It is the alternative method of the competitive labour market model. It is all about the primary, secondary, internal and external labour market theory. It shows demand side is greater than supply side.
COMPETITIVE LABOUR MARKET MODELS IS DETERMINED BY TWO PARTS:-
Demand for labour service.
Supply of labour service.
DEMAND FOR LABOUR SERVICES IN THE LABOUR MARKET:-
In order to get output, organization needs workers for productivity. Thus, this factor is known as demand of labour. As demand for goods and services increases in a particular firm, automatically there will be increase in demand for labour.
SUPPLY OF LABOUR SERVICES IN LABOUR MARKET:-
This can be defined as the total hours worked by number of workers, who are willing to work at a given wage rate, and able to supply their labour in a given industry. It is characterized by demographic factors and of the unemployed workers and employed workers.
The following demographic factors affecting the supply side of the labour market are as follows:-
the population.:- it is always analysed by size, gender, age of the working population. Also the age composition and its rate of growth influenced by demographic trends.
participation rates of labour force:- all the social, economic and demographic factors which influence labour participation rates like standard of living, early retirement, enrolments, marital status.
the labour force:- some demographic patterns come together in participation rates bring changes in the growth rate, composition of age and gender in labour force.
employed and unemployed workers:- this include part time or full time workers, length of time being unemployed, paid employees or self employed, underemployed.
the profile of designated groups:- this includes women, disable people, immigrants, social assistant etc.
(B) TRAINING NEEDS FOR GROUPS OF WORKERS:-
Assessment of the training needs:-
Assessment of needs is must in a particular organization. Assessment of needs occur in 2 levels:-
Individual:- individual often needs training when he or she is having lack of skill or knowledge, or not performing well etc.. training will solve the above problems of an individual.
Group:- assessment of training is necessary for group level also. When there is any changes in external or internal environment of organization it is necessary to train the group of employees.
For eg:- organisation is introducing new machinery into a sales department, it become necessary to train the group(sales department) how to use that new machine in order to complete sales target.
ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS
Mission and vision of organization
Survey of attitude of individual
Progress in training.
LEVELS OF LEARNING:-
Trainee can be trained by 3 levels of learning which are as follows:-
Trainee must develop a basic understanding of the work to be done, concepts, familiar to the environment of the organization.
The skill of trainee should be developed or trainee should have the ability to perform the given task.
This level involves experience and also improve the skills which has been already developed in level (b).
PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING:-
Employee motivation:- In order to make training and development program effective on has to motivate the trainee to learn. Motivation is arrived from the status and pat arat after completion of training program. Physiological needs, safety, love, self esteem, self actualization, motivators and hygiene factors are the reasons of motivation. But at the same time individual should know what is learning and how to learn.
Differences in individual:- while organizing training and development program on should consider that all individuals are not same as other. Their skills, abilities and capabilities varies from each other.
We all know practice makes a man perfect. Whatever is being taught in training program, trainee must be given that opportunity to practice it. After training has been given to an individual, practice is very necessary for him or her on that particular learning.
It increases the power of the response, and encourage the behavior that comes first.
It can be both positive and negative.
Example of positive reinforcement if a student score highest marks in class, and if teacher has complimented him or her den it is obvious, that the student will repeat it again in future.
Negative reinforcement means avoiding the learning. For example student does something, in order to get rid of teacher's scolding.
Knowledge of Results (feedback):
For learning, it is necessary to have the knowledge of its results. If there is any feedback from an individual's performance then he or she is able to know where they are at this point of time, if there is any changes to make then make it correct, so that they don't get deviated from their goals.
In order to speed up the learning and get knowledge as results, one should set a goal. Individuals learn quickly when a difficult goal or a particular goal has be be completed.
Schedules of learning:
Schedules of learning involves three sessions like the time or duration of practice done by an individual, duration of time taken in having rest, and position the pauses of rest that has been taken already. All the above three should be planned well.
Meaning of material:
It is very important for an individual to know the meaning of what they are going to learn. The learning process will succeed only when the meaning of material is given.
Transfer of Learning:
Once training has been completed, whatever an individual has learnt must transfer to the job. But this does not mean transfer done to managerial skill or leadership skills.
Transfer must be done in order to match the learning skills on particular job. It is often that whatever he or she has learned in training process may struggle when they apply in real job.
Thus, to overcome the resistance, supervisors should create opportunities for trainee to imply new behavior, have positive behavior in order to make sure that this behavior will be reinforced in future.
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