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Performance appraisal system

Abstract

The objective of this research proposal is to evaluate the impact of performance appraisal approach of employees and also investigates the relationship between performance appraisal and employee performance.Performance evaluation is a relatively new approach to assessing employee performance.It is commonly used in organizations to achieve a successive change in the employee's performance and is an opportunity for employees to participate and resolve all issues related work such as wages, recognition of work. The main objectives of this review for the employers to identify the areas of employee training and development needs.

Introduction

Before going to make a concept of performance appraisal system is needed to clarify that with brief introduction of performance appraisal system.

The evaluation system is an exercise to review the evaluation of employees how they are progressing in the work front.The process, he notes, training measures and appropriate development, and evaluates performance of employees in the workplace

The main uses of the evaluation system in the workplace are to weigh the decision and the development of the decision.It is also a tool to give confidence and praised good performance to continue their outstanding performance and to motivate poor performers to do better in the workplace in general is an opportunity for employees to improve their working lives.It provides an opportunity for employees to achieve high-level management in the organization to discuss their experiences and offers more possibilities for self-evaluation in which they will need to cover training and development.Performance evaluation is also a technique for entrepreneurs to protect themselves against claims of favoritism and fairly distribute the prizes.

Traditional approaches to assessment have relied almost exclusively on one side or on subjective judgments that have ignored the importance of the relationship between the evaluator and the evaluated and have paid scant attention to the many constraints that may adversely affect the outcomemanager's influence(Williams1972:01)

The theoretical point of view of different authors, who previously analyzed these fundamental issues to be discussed here in my research proposal.

I think it important benefits for managers and employees evaluated only achievable if the evaluation system takes place in an atmosphere of mutual trust between the parties.In my own experience of the assessment it gave me the opportunity to evaluate my car in which areas they needed to improve and also gave me the opportunity to meet senior management to discuss face to face work problemsdirectly connected without any interruption.

OBJECTIVES

• Performance appraisal improves employees moral and job security.

• It helps to improve productivity and quality of service.

• It provides opportunity to identify areas of employees training and development.

LITERATURE REVIEW

"A review of the literature is a report evaluating the information found in the literature related to their field of study selected. The review should describe, summarize, evaluate and clarify this literature. Should be given a theoretical basis for research and helpyou (the author) determine the nature of their research. The works that are irrelevant are discarded and those which are peripheral to be looked at critically "(Ward, T. 2000)

The new section evaluates the literature review of the literature associated with the research topic that provides background information for the investigation.The purpose of this chapter is to give overview of themes and different theories, methods of performance assessment, and employee attitudes.

Most commentators have different opposing views on the use of control appraising some say it's an opportunity to participate and bring successive changes in employee performance.However, some scholars say employers are using only for assessing employee performance.
Dorfman et al (1986) carried out during the longitudinal study in his research found that control of the exercise is not compatible with the promotion, pay related problems, or feedback for performance improvement.They claimed it was only related only to the extent of change in performance.However, Nathan et al (1991 investigation of contrast) stated that affect the performance tests in three dimensions.It gives employees the opportunity to participate in the discussion, performance evaluation, and changes in employee performance (Mushin and Byoungho. 1998).

A company in Korea conducted the evaluation of employee performance and the outcome of the evaluation have been used to obtain information to support career development, job rotation, promotion and pay decisions.

Against two different viewpoints Lee and Son (1998) conducted another longitudinal study in this investigation found that the content of assessment review has no positive impact on subsequent job performance.Why the result was the same as Dorfman et al (1986) and different from Nathan et al (1991).Lee and Son (1998) describe the most likely reason is that data has been obtained from the organization and Natha et al (1991) had collected data through questionnaire (Mushin and Byoungho. 1998).

Fletcher (2001) describes the performance evaluation has been more a part of the strategic approach to the integration of modern human resources activities and business policies and planning.Has also been seen as "a generic term which is used for wide range to cover different types of activities through which organizations use to evaluate employee performance and develop their competence, improve performance and distribution of awardsfairly and performance problems can be solved quickly (Bard, K. 2006).

A representative survey of 593 employees from 64 Norwegian banks showed that performance appraisal satisfaction is directly associated with real commitment and employee turnover.Bruvold Lee (2003) argue that employees who believe their organization is faithful to provide development opportunities could be considered the responsibility of paying the organization through good job performance.Goal setting and feedback are the most important activities of the assessment of organizational performance (Bard K. 2006).

Levinson (1970), cited in performance measurement, evaluation and incentives describes the three main functions of performance evaluation and review, particularly emphasizing the explanation of job requirements and performance expectations.To evaluate and make decisions related to performance, and assessing individual performance to organizational goals, to promote increased competition and the development employee (William and Bruns 1992:17).

A performance assessment consists of five basic steps.The first tasks are recognized and principles of action are developed and discussed with the employee.Secondly a work period allows the time taken to establish task.While the manager monitors the activities and provide support and feedback.Third, the manager must inform the employee of the PA interview future and both should be ready.Fourth, the interview takes place, ending with the organization of work and the rules or in the next period.Fifthly a session review should be held to discuss the previous stages and to review actions that have been considered to improve performance.The review section provides an opportunity for both parties to the PA interview discussed again at the outset might have lost something, and to evaluate the evaluation process in order to improve (Weisinger 1989:209).

Weisinger (1989) describes an additional and generally how can we make PA more useful is the use of questions or issues.The poll is the way of communication technique is usually used to examine or investigate a topic.Polls facilitates the process of PA and that helps managers to find out what the employee thinks and feels.It also increases employee trust through communication because they believe that their thoughts are important.Survey assessment makes sense for the employee, because in this process that is using their words to express their own ideas.This in itself eliminates negative emotions (Weisinger 1989:220).

If employees are not given sufficient explanation of the method by which qualifications are evaluated at the end of the year, if even need may be considered unfair.Employees must not only meet the standard, but also must know the outcome of the interview that the decision of how and in what has been done.That understanding on your part goes a long way towards cooperation Drink employees operating in the evaluation process and reduce their distrust in the PA debate (Swan 1991: pp34-35).

Methodology

The chapter shows the design methodology of research and I will use here as a theoretical framework to describe the research methodology.
There are two common approaches being used to explain the reasons behind the application of theory in research is deductive and inductive approaches.The deductive approach involves developing a theory or hypothesis first and then design a research strategy in order to test them.And the inductive approach is collecting preliminary data and the theory is developed based on evaluation of data collected.The inductive process of data collection method commonly used in qualitative research.
(Mackenzie, J. 2005)

Research strategy is a plan of how the researcher will answer the research question.The selection of research strategy facilitates the researcher to collect enough date to be necessary to achieve the research objectives.Some of the most prominent and widely used strategies are experiment, survey, case study, grounded theory and result of the action
(Saunders et al., 2000) I will use the case study strategy in order to meet the goal of my research.

Whittaker and Payne (2006) describe a case study exercise information that the student develop skills in assessing the situation, identify problems and also provide opportunities to practice.(Whittaker and Payne 2006:275)

Case study is a kind of explicit knowledge and broad knowledge that provides an opportunity for researchers to assess cases and provide the results of the investigation.According to Saunders et al.(2000) case study can be a very useful research of existing theory and can also use as a source of new hypotheses.And the collection of data can be used in case study questionnaires, interviews and observation.

"Much of the case study design is inherently given to the researchers, as the field they are working. In composition studies, researchers are working normally from a qualitative standpoint, descriptive. In contrast, physicistswill approach their research from a quantitative perspective. However, in designing the study, researchers should make explicit the questions to be explored and the theoretical perspective which approach the subject "(Palmaquist, M.1993)

It is based on the types of field research that hopes to accomplish.The main concern of researchers to design a case study is to make an assessment decision-making and identify risk.There are three main theories usually adopted to carry out an investigation of individual theories, theories of the organization, and social theories.

A strategy for success

4 Rs for success

http://www.bized.co.uk/reference/studyskills/case.htm

The main drawback of case study is that the result can not be generalized to others.In simple words, knowledge or experience a person can not relate to other people.Through case studies, we learn much about a case, but what we learn could not relate to the larger population.(Lanthier, E. 2002)
A data collection method is a systematic and orderly approach adopted for the collection and analysis so that information can be obtained from the data (JANKOWITZ 2000:209).

My research was designed to evaluate the impact of using performance assessment in the workplace.The same data will be collected by different methods and data collected will be cross checked with others.There are two types of collection of primary and secondary data.For the data collected by the investigator himself is called raw data and can be classified in the collection of quantitative and qualitative data.And the data collected from published sources, such as literature, magazine and is known as secondary data.

Interviews are one of the most widely techniques of data collection.It helps to collect valid and reliable data that are relevant to the investigation and the target.Can be conducted in a highly structured, using questionnaires or informal may be through unstructured conversation.Interview may be conducted by face to face or by phone and online.(sekaran 2003:546)

Questionnaire is also another method of investigation and economically viable.Can be used as an instrument of resource data collection but it depends on how researchers are going to do a structure and design of the questionnaire and how it will interpret the collective data.Compared to the research interview in the respondent survey questionnaire is usually completely free to express their views without any interviewer bias.Saunders et al (2003:678)

REFERENCES

Biz/ed (1996), “Study Skills.” [Online], Available at http://www.bized.co.uk/reference/studyskills/case.htm [accessed on 28/03/08]

Dr Mackenzie, John (2005), “Action Research and using Data.” [Online], Available at http://www.aea267.k12.ia.us/cia/currinstassess/using_data/using_data.htm [Accessed on 21/03/08]

Dr Lanthier, Elizabeth (2002), “Case Study.” [Online], Available at http://www.nvcc.edu/home/elanthier/methods/case-study.htm [accessed on 02/04/08]

Dr Ward, Tony (2000), “Central Queensland University Library.” [Online], Available at http://www.library.cqu.edu.au/tutorials/litreviewpages/what.htm [accessed on 15/03/08]

Jankowicz, A. D. (2000) Business Research Projects (3rd edition) Business Press Thomson Learning.

Kuvaas, Bård (March 2006), 'Performance appraisal satisfaction and Employee outcomes: mediating and moderating roles of work motivation, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.17:3, pp504 - 522 to visit this article click on following link http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713702518

Mushin Lee; Byoungho Son, (1998), The effects of appraisal review content on employee's reaction and performance, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 9:1, pp. 203 - 214 To visit this article click on following link: URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/095851998341279

Palmquist, Mike (1993), “Writing Guides Case Studies.” [Online], Available at http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/casestudy/com2b2.cfm [accessed on 28/03/08]

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A. (2003) Research Method for Business Students (3rd edition) London, Financial Times Prentice Hall

Saunders, M., Lewis, P.,Thornhill, A. (2000) Research Methods for Business Students (2nd edition), London, Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Sekaran, U. (2003) Research Method for Business: A skill Building Approach (4th edition) John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Swan, William S., (1991) How to do Superior Performance Appraisal, Toronto, John Wiley & Sons, Inc

Weisinger, Hendrie., (1989) Creative Criticism, London, Sidgwick & Jackson

Whittaker, Lesley. And Payne Elaine (2006) Developing Essential Study Skills (2nd edition) London, Prentice Hall

William, M.R., (1972) Performance Appraisal in Management, London, Heinemann