Lack of entrepreneurial development in popular culture
I do this as the entire Iranian entrepreneurs do. Or some big city Karknm. Iran's first come, and I divided according to different culture and climate impact on the personality characteristics we measure Entrepreneurship.
Nowadays all of the countries are looking for promotion and increase of quality of human source also growth of human force in order to achieve national goals, economic development and production of wealth also cultural dynamic, civil development and social coherence and generally pass the way of sustainable development based on the growth of technology, Creativity and Innovation, management of entrepreneurship and management of knowledge and wisdom oriented in all of domains and levels. Management of entrepreneurship in University is one of the new policies of universities that necessary for growth of it. (Sharifzadeh, 2006).
Higher education in Iran, like many countries is very important in all fields and aspects. Higher education is responsible for developing a scientific base in order to achieve a economic growth, which relies on scientific and the promotion of knowledge advancements and exchange information with developed countries. Currently, there are 2200 universities in Iran. There are over 1200 public universities that are supported by the government, for example Tehran University is university second in the Middle East .also, there are private university called “free universities” and non-profit institutions. According to the latest statistics released by the Ministry of the Science, Research and Technology (MSRT) (2010) there are over 3.7 million students enrolled in higher education institutions, which about 50.5% were male and 49.5% were female. Iranian universities graduate more 760,000 students annually.
Nowadays university in Iran suffers from an overall shortage of quality. Much of this can be traced back to ineffective management of resources human as well as natural, increased enrollments, a lack of technology, traditional and outmoded instructional methods based on memorization and improper incentives for students and teachers . Nowadays, with the increased speed of knowledge and telecommunication technology then there were many changes in society. So, Iran's old and experienced higher educational system doesn't have the sufficient capacity to meet current societal needs. It faces numerous challenges and obstacles and needs change and reform pretty rapidly (Rasian, 2009).At present, based on available authorized statistics 15/6% of graduates after leaving university have been unable to find employment .generally in Iran, government has been the main source of employment creation especially for university graduates. The main strategy of university therefore was to prepare its clientele for government employment. But in today’s world, market liberalization, population growth and globalization also government downsizing have caused a shift in the market place towards the business area (Hosseini et al. 2008; Saketi, 2001). Most national researchers believe that the inconsistency of higher education with the needs of changing marketplace is a main reason of unemployment growth rate among higher education graduates (Hosseini et al., 2008). Meanwhile, international organizations such as Organization For Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) and World Bank and various national organizations believe that management of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs nurturing as a dynamic program in the social system including higher education, can assist governments to foster economic development and employment (Ahmadpour-e- daryani, 2003). University and higher education as a social institute is responsible for national development and this responsibility is in the form of dynamic role playing and entrepreneurship. These are propelling motors toward sustainable development. In this situation, education of student and training entrepreneur increases their role in political and social affair.
Mainly, entrepreneurs are those who start a new ideas to businesses and implement it according to the program until it becomes to successful. But are there any personality traits of an entrepreneur or for that matter a successful entrepreneur? Yes, for one to be a successful entrepreneur, he/she must possess certain unique traits that are a prerequisite for the success of the enterprise. Therefore, measuring entrepreneurship personality characteristics and identifying strengths and weaknesses in students is big challenge in creating entrepreneurial students that lead to develop and improve dynamic and creative economy. This study tries to measure the personality characteristics of entrepreneurship in Iran's universities and providing strategies to increase student entrepreneurship traits.
In past years, the increased population , the lack of progress in the economy , the Numerous of university graduates also wrong government policies and the inability of the Private companies to employ the graduates because old structure of production and inefficient economies , Iran faced a severe crisis of unemployment for graduates. nowadays, on the one hand , to find a solution to the problems of graduate unemployment and the other side needs competitive based on market has caused to pay more attention to management of entrepreneurship as an fundamental and important issue . proposing new ideas based on entrepreneurial management in creating job opportunities, Improving human resources, market development , improve technology and increase the level of social welfare also a strong correlation between entrepreneurship and economic growth country led to serious consideration of entrepreneurship in new economic theories as the main factor in economic growth and social development of countries. (Audretsch, 2002; Zoltan, 2006).
One of the challenges facing different communities, Graduates lack of skills and individual abilities to set up and business . This shows the necessity of preparing university graduates by developing entrepreneurial culture. This preparation in entrepreneurship should not be after graduation and this must be done during the study ,Also need to be develop and fosterage entrepreneurial spirit in universities .
Entrepreneurial education can play a significant role in changing views of students towards selfemployment and through education on necessary skills to manage a business has prepared them for selfemployment labor market (Nelson, 1986).
so the entrepreneurial education has been turned to a serious necessity and the governments must compile strategic plans for entrepreneurial education in all of sectors in order to upgrade the individual’s capabilities for the entrepreneurship (Smit, 2004). Indeed, the entrepreneurship is a key element in production and employment increase, a solution to fight against the unemployment crisis, a response to community diverse demands; therefore, it is considered as one of the important fundamental aspects in economic development plans (Higgins and Morgan, 2000; Sherief, 2005; Smit, 2004).
Most scholars and experts in the field of business, has identified creativity, innovation or entrepreneurship as one of the key factors of success in the world's competitive markets(Heizer&Render.2001). In Iran these factors are practical when graduates of universities instead of entering in government departments, enter to entrepreneurship process more than before and are engaged as activists in their economic arena. Hence graduates and students are the main factor and support the government's decision to enter international markets.Recently in Iran, very effective steps have been taken in promotion of training and supporting entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs, but it seems that with regard to importance of the subject, the performed actions are not enough at all and confront several challenges and problems for at least one decade ahead. in 2002, the government instructed a few ministries to put the entrepreneurship at their priorities. One of these ministries is the Ministry of Science Research and Technology which familiarized academic society with entrepreneurship via a project called KARAD (the project for developing entrepreneurship in universities). This project has defined its goals, and also clarified the strategies for reaching these goals so it can inform the academic society about the importance of entrepreneurship (Shah Hosseini, 2005, P126). Although it has not led the Iranian academy toward entrepreneurship and creativity. Some believe that this failure is related to personality characters of Iranian people including conservatism, extroversion in respect to control focus. However, we can mention lack of governmental support, economic instability, and cultural characteristics in Iran as some other main reasons for slow progress of entrepreneurship in Iran.
It is obvious that University students throughout the world comprise diverse cultural and social views. Moreover, each country has its own norms and values and it defines distinct outlooks toward real life. People in varying environments have a large range of expectations, demands, and outlooks for diverse and complex values in many areas. Cultural values seem to be a significant issue in today’s world. According to Hayton et al. (2002) and Hechavarria and Reynolds (2009), cultural values reflect the degree to which a society considers entrepreneurial behaviors such as risk-taking to be desirable
and promoting innovation and creativity. Some societies are more supportive of entrepreneurial activities than others (Carsurd et al. 2006). This statement was supported by Pruett et al. (2009) when they explored motivations and barriers to entrepreneurial characteristics among university students in different cultural contexts
So despite of having students with entrepreneurship features, one of the major factors are success in entrepreneurship. This study seeks to measure entrepreneurship personality characteristics and identify strengths and weaknesses in students and providing strategies to increase student’s entrepreneurship features.
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