Employee welfare benefits
To attract, motivate and retain good employees, organization need to define what employees want from employment relationship. Employee needs is to consider Total Reward which is everything an employee perceives resulting from working for the company. Benefits are core elements of Total Reward system. Benefits include health, welfare plans and retirement plans provided by the organizations to protect and ensure employees financial security. Employee benefits have evolved from basic "Fringe Benefits "to a comprehensive range of benefits that strike a balance between employees' personal and professional lives.
Many studies contend that benefits are the most useful mean to attract, motivate and retain employees. Companies offering attractive benefits packages have more buying power in the job market. The available literature on employee welfare benefits suggest that people do not work just for a wage or salary but expect more from employment. Companies offering more voluntary benefits have better chance of attracting qualified people and retaining them. On the other hand retention is key challenge in firms lacking such welfare benefits and where work tends to get routine and there is no opportunity for personal growth and development. The result would be high rate of employee turnover. Research reveals various reasons why employees want to leave an organization. The most common one includes monotonous work schedule, stress at workplace, lack of career growth, training and development opportunities and nepotism etc.
This Research focuses on employee welfare benefits, its impact on employees and organization. The study also includes case study of Askari Cement a Pakistani based organization. The organization did not provide much welfare benefits that resulted not only in high rate of employee turnover but also affected efficiency and performance of the organization. In order to identify employee welfare problems in Askari Cement survey was done using different research tools including questionnaires and interviews. The data of respondents was analysed carefully and the findings are represented in this research. At the end final concluding remarks is given. The study also provided some suggestions and recommendations to the organization for the improvement of employee welfare problems in order to motivate, retain and improve employee performance at workplace.
The objective of this chapter is to provide reader with some basic information about the organization, the business of the organization, problems in the organization, its location and information about the country where the organization exists.
Introduction to the country
At the time of independence in August 1947 only one or two units were producing grey cements in Pakistan. But during 1948-58 the number of units was increased to six. During Ayub khan era the economy was stable and construction activities increased and during 1958-68 three more units were added. During the period of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto all industrial units including cement industry were nationalized and there was no increase in units during 1971-77. At the arrival of General Zia ul Haq decentralization of industries boosted the investments. Housing and constructions picked up and the demand for cement increased and number of units increased to 23 and finally to 24. Since independence production capacity per annum increased from half a million tonnes to more than 10 million tonnes per annum. Apart from the decentralization the new manufacturing facilities and expansion by exiting units also contributed to the expansion of industry. In total 23 units 4 units are in the public sector while 19 units are in the private sector. Two of 4 in public sector had to close its operations because of tough competition and high production costs. Cement units are located in every province of Pakistan. The selected organization which is "Askari Cement" has two units located at Wah (Punjab) and at Nizampur (NWFP) Pakistan.
Background of the company
Askari Cement Ltd is located in Pakistan. The company has been registered as an ISO 9001-2000 certified organization and has the credit of being the first in cement industry to get ISO 9001. Company employs about 1500 employees in which 1150 are permanent employees number of female employees is about 20 while rest are temporary and daily wages workers. It has two units based at Wah (North Punjab) and at Nizampur (NWFP). Being the high producer of cement at both plants Askari Cement has consistent availability and a big supply chain in all the provinces of the country. Askari cement is used by mega projects of national importance such as Ghazi Brotha Hydro Power Project, Pakistan Housing Authority schemes and Pakistani Railways etc.
History of the company
Askari cement factory is successor of Associated Cement Company. The first plant was set up by Bombay based company (Associated Cement Company) in 1921 with a capacity of 120 tonnes per day and was enhanced to 300 tonnes per day in 1950. In 1972 the company was nationalized and put under control of state cement corporation of Pakistan in 1974. In the year of 1991 its name was changed to WAH Cement Factory. In the mid nine-tees during privatization scheme it was privatized and in 1996 was acquired by the Army Welfare Trust. After acquisition by Army welfare trust the name of the brand was changed to Askari Cement. Askari Cement has the credit of being the first in cement industry to get ISO 9001, and now first to get the ISO-14001 Environmental Friendly standards certification in Pakistan. Another plant was started in 1993 by the Army Welfare Trust in North West Frontier Province at Nizampur that started production in 1996.
Statement of problem
Pakistan is a developing country with barely a budding industrial infrastructure. The industries are facing different sort of external hazards such as political instability, economic instability, energy crises and also suffering from internal problems such as lack of advanced technologies, skilled workers, training facilities and conducive work environment etc.
One important factor that reduces the efficiency and effectiveness of organizations in Pakistan is high rate of employee turnover. Looking deep in to the problem and linking it with the available literature that clearly proposes an implied possibility of lack of employee welfare benefits. Welfare includes everything done for the comfort and improvement of employees apart from wages such as monitoring of working conditions, infrastructure for health insurance, accidental and unemployment benefits for workers and their families, education for children and post retirement benefits. Most of the organizations in Pakistan rarely provide overall competitive packages to its employees, which results in low productivity, retention and some time high rate of employee turnover. A well defined and comprehensive personal development policy for the employees should be in place in organizations to increase productivity and reduce employee turnover. According to social-exchange theory, the more valuable the activity of another is to a person, the more valuable the approval he gives in return. This view implies that firms offering more voluntary compensation should have a better chance of attracting or retaining good workers to contribute their skills and knowledge. A lot of studies contend that benefits are a useful means to motivate, retain and attract qualified employees. (Tsai & Wang, 2005)
The Research is based on the case study of "Askari Cement" located in Pakistan. In Recent years the company management did not concentrate on employee welfare problems such as competitive packages, poor health and safety at workplace, poor messing and toilets facilities, lack of training and career development opportunities, nepotism in promotions etc. Lack of such welfare benefits not only de-motivated employees but also resulted in high rate of employee turnover, low workplace productivity and affected the overall efficiency and performance of the organization.
Purpose of the study
The primary purpose of this study is to investigate how welfare programs affect employees. Secondly why employers provide employee welfare programs and how they help organizations in retaining staff and increasing workplace productivity. Finally to highlight employee welfare problems in the selected organization and to provide suggestions to improve employees' job satisfaction, working conditions and health and safety issues at workplace.
The research would focus on the following questions
- To investigate and identify employee welfare/benefits provided by the selected organization, to highlight welfare problems and to provide suggestions to improve employees' job satisfaction, working conditions and health and safety issues at workplace?
- Should more emphasis be placed on welfare benefits to improve employees' performance and increase productivity?
- Employee retention is a key challenge in organizations. How employee welfare benefits help organizations in retaining and attracting staff?
- Why do companies provide employee welfare benefits and how they affect employees?
In this research data has been collected through primary and secondary research. When research is conducted and opposed data is accumulated directly from respondents or research subjects for the purpose of project is called empirical or primary research e.g. personal interviews where informants were interviewed about issues being studied.
Secondary research arises when a project necessitates a summary or appraisal of compilation of data (Saunders et al, 2003). Secondary data can be collected from three mains sources e.g. published data, internal documentation, and feedback provided by industry experts or workers.
Limitations of research
First limitation is that due to time and cost reductions for the purpose of primary research questionnaires, telephonic interview have been used instead of face to face interview. Second limitation is that in qualitative research all acquired data ought to be presented in written format not in figure form (Kumar.2005). The third limitation is research questionnaire might give researcher little information. Fourth limitation is some time respondent do not want to fill out questionnaire and research may get delay. Finally, if a company show its willingness to participate in research may hide some important documents from researcher
To attract, motivate and retain good employees, organizations need to define what employees Want from employment relationship. Employee needs is to consider "Total Reward" which is everything an employee perceives resulting from working for the company. Benefits are core elements of Total Reward system. Welfare benefits include health, welfare plans and retirement plans provided by the organizations to protect and ensure employees financial security as well as schemes providing pay for time not worked. Employee benefits have evolved from basic "Fringe Benefits "to a comprehensive range of benefits that strike a balance between employees' personal and professional lives. (WorldatWork.2007)
Historical Perspective of Employee Welfare/Benefits
The world of employee benefits is different from before what is not changed is that employees need benefits and employers need employees. Plans that now classified as employee benefits have had a long history in the US. It can be traced back to 1794 when the first recorded profit sharing plan was introduced by Albert Gallatin in his glassworks in Pennsylvania. The first private pension plan was started in the US by the American express company in 1875, and the first group annuity contract was issued in 1921 by the metropolitan life insurance company. In 1910 the Montgomery Ward Company conceived of group life and accident insurance for its employees, and the Company adopted the first group accident and sickness policy underwritten by the London Guarantee and Accident Company. The first group life insurance policy was issued to the Pantasote Leather Company by the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States in 1911. (Marsh & kleiner, 2004)
According to Jerrell (1997) the Social Security Act of 1935 provided the framework for much of the American social insurance and was a vital event in the development of employee benefits. In 1939 the advisory council on social security recommended the expansion of the Act by extending benefits to employees' dependents and survivors. Recommendations were enacted by congress and established 1940 as year benefits first to be paid. Another employee benefit of unemployment insurance was introduced during 1900-1950 although its forms and functions changed over the period. Today the business, social and economic and climates are much different from that in 1950. (Jerrell.1997). Employees do not work just for a wage or salary and expect something more from employers so employee welfare programs and benefits are vital for the development of corporate industrials relations.
What is Employee Welfare
Employee welfare refers to anything that is done for the comfort and improvement of employees and is provided other than wages or salary. Welfare programs help organizations to motivate its employees and keep their morale high so as to retain them for longer duration. Employee welfare refers to promotion of industrial harmony through infrastructure for health insurance against diseases, accident and unemployment for the employees and their families. Welfare includes all those activities by the employers directed toward providing employees with certain facilities and services. (Online Jan 2010)
Employee Welfare benefits
According to Marsh & Kleiner (2004) Employee welfare benefits represent any form of compensation provided:
Other than direct wages 2) Paid for in whole or in part by employer, even if provided by a third party (e.g. by the government an insurance company or a health maintenance organization). Such Benefits vary from organization to organization and serve different social and economic needs. They fall into two categories: several benefits are required by law; the first category is employer's contribution to social security, Medicare, unemployment insurance and workers compensation insurance. The other kind is known as voluntary or discretionary benefits and serves different goals. Such benefits include employer's contribution for health coverage, flexitime and child care etc. (marsh & kleiner, 2004)
Cook (2008) argued that along with flexible workings, best practice organizations focus on developing strategies for employee welfare these strategies can encompass a range of benefits and there is a growing trend to make them as wide ranging as possible so that the employee has a choice. The range of welfare options offered will vary depends on the marketplace and demographics of the workforce. According to cook 1) "the welfare policy of each organization needs to be designed with the needs of different demographic groups in mind 2) giving employees' flexibility and choice in the welfare benefits that they receive is important 3) welfare benefits should have a cultural fit with the organization". (Cook, p.110-113, 2008)
"Employee benefits consist of arrangements made by the employers for their employees which enhance the latter's well being. They are provided in addition to pay and form important part of the total reward package". (Armstrong & Stephens, p.225, 2005)
According to Ivancevich (2007) indirect financial compensation is called benefits. It can be defined as employer reward other than wages or salaries arising from legally required social insurance payments, retirement plans, payments for time not worked, extra cash payments other than bonuses based on performance and cost of services like subsidized cafeterias', clothing allowances and so on. (p.356, 2007)
Traditional employee welfare benefits such as healthcare programs, insurance and retirement programs are generally provided to all workers within an organization, irrespective of their performance in order to meet their security and safety needs. Employee services comprising childcare services and financial assistance programmes are innovative benefits provided to employee in order to help them manage their work and family life. (Lee et al, 2008)
Lee (2008) found that Organizations that had onsite child care facilities had more motivated and satisfied employee and also high employee retention level. However firms that were unable to provide such services had high absenteeism problem and intention to quit, low employees performance and more employees with health problems because of care giving stress. Some of the firms provide such benefits because employees who bring personal life problems to work tend to have poor work quality and low productivity because of increase absenteeism. Many firms do not provide such benefits because of high costs. But those that do provide enhance its attractiveness as an employer because when workers perceive that their firm's practices are positive their level of identification with the firm increases. (Lee et al, 2008)
"People do not work for just a wage or salary. There is usually a whole compensation package and this should be assembled primarily with motivational intentions."(forsyth.p 81, 2006).The job of the package is has two overriding intentions; first to attract right people to the job and allow successful recruitment and selection to take place. Attracting right people is a competitive process. Certainly good people will be attracted only as a result of weighing up the pros and cons of what you offer alongside other prospective employers. The second intention of the package is to retain people in the job and encourage them to remain with the company. (Forsyth, 2006)
Armstrong (1999) there are arguments against the provision of welfare services; welfare is provided by the state services why industrial, commercial or public organizations should provide welfare services. Employees private and out of work activities should be not the concern of employers. The argument for employee welfare services was put by martin (1967) "Staff spends at least half their waking time at work or in getting to it or leaving it. They know they contribute to the organization when they are reasonably free from worry, and they feel, perhaps inarticulately, that when they are in trouble they are due to get something back from the organization. People are entitled to be treated as full human beings with personal needs, hopes and anxieties; they are employed as people; they bring themselves to work, not just their hands, and they cannot readily leave their troubles at home."(Armstrong p783-785.1999).Welfare may not directly increase productivity but it may increase commitment and help in retention of key employees.
Why we have employee welfare benefits
The question is why we have employer welfare benefits and what is the purpose of such benefits? Employee benefits or benefits plans are provided to serve both employer and employees, though needs and desires of individuals employees differ. According to Marsh & kleiner (2004) the following are some of the reasons why employee welfare benefits are implemented, one of the most important reason is to provide an appropriate standard of living to employees and for his/her family, to recognize employee performance through some kind of incentive compensation, to provide protection against medical expenses for the employee and his family, to provide protection against loss of income in the event of employees premature death, disability or unemployment, to provide retirement income and Possibly to make available sound retirement, financial and tax planning programme and services (Marsh & kleiner, 2004)
Why employer provide welfare benefits
As discussed above People do not work for just a wage or salary. There is usually a whole compensation package and this should be assembled primarily with motivational intentions. Employer provides welfare benefits for different reasons some of the important reasons are, one of the most important objective of employee welfare benefits is to motivate and retain employee, second objective from employer point of view is to attract professional talent for the firm, to provide incentives for high performance, some other objectives Include designing a compensation system that is internally equitable among employees, to contain employee benefit cost as much as feasible consistent with other compensation objectives and to meet union bargaining demands in effective manner. All these objectives are aimed at promoting company profits while enabling company to meet its social obligation to its employees. (Marsh & kleiner, 2004)
Features of welfare measures
Giri (2008) Employees' welfare includes services, facilities and amenities provided to employees for improving their efficiency, health, economic condition and social status. These welfare benefits are provided in addition to wages and other benefits available to employees due to legal provisions. Welfare measures are flexible and may be introduced by the employers, governments and employees. The main purpose of employee welfare is to develop the whole personality of the employees to make a better work life. The logic behind welfare benefits is to prepare efficient, healthy, loyal and satisfied work force for the organization. The purpose of such services and facilities is to improve employees' standard of living and make their work life better. The important benefits of welfare measures are to provide a good physical and mental health to employees to create a better working life. Employer gets a strong work force by providing welfare benefits and employees take active part in their jobs and work with a feeling of participation. Employee welfare benefits increase organizations productivity and promote a healthy work environment. Facilities like medical benefits, education for employees families help in improving their standard of living and this makes employees to concentrate more on their jobs. (Giri.2008)
Employee welfare schemes
Employee welfare programs serve different objectives. The most important objective is to provide better and healthy life to workers. Secondly welfare benefits are provided in order to make employee happy and satisfied. Other purpose of benefits is to relieve employees from exhaustion and improve cultural and living conditions of the employees. As an employer if you employee anyone (irrespective of time period short or long) you must as reasonably provide adequate welfare facilities for employees while they are at work. Welfare facilities are those necessary for the wellbeing of your employees. Organizations provide welfare benefits to their employees to motive them. Employee welfare schemes can be divided into two categories: statutory and non statutory. Statutory schemes are required by law to be provided to the employees while non statutory schemes vary from organization to organization. (Giri.2008)
Statutory welfare schemes:
Statutory schemes are those required by law and organizations must be provided in order to meet statutory obligations. Employers are required to made provisions for Health and safety, first Aid appliances, drinking water, latrines, canteens, lighting, washing places and changing rooms etc. The most important of such statutory schemes are health and safety and first aid facilities at workplace which are discussed below.
Health and safety at workplace
Cushway (2002) Employer has a general responsibility towards the health and safety of its employees. This requirement was given legal force through the health and safety act of 1974. Every employer must take practical steps to provide, safe working environment and safe access to and from working place, a safe system of work, safe tools, equipment and appliances, protection hazards and necessary training for employees. Apart from this if an organizations employee five or more employees it must have written health and safety policy. Employers have a duty towards general public as well and must ensure health and safety of visitors. Employees also have a duty to ensure health and safety at work and must not take steps which can affect others health and safety. The management of health and safety at work regulations act of 1999 require employer to, maintain health and safety and asses any risks to the health and safety of employees and if an organization employee more than five to record any findings, make arrangements for the preventive and protective measures arising from risks assessments, to carry out surveillance of employees regarding health and safety, to appoint a competent person to be responsible for the health and safety of the company, and make arrangements for necessary contacts with emergency services, and provide training and information about health and safety to employees and to ensure that temporary employees are also informed of health and safety measures. (Cushway. 2002)
First Aid facilities at workplace
As an employer you are required to provide first aid appliances at the work place. These facilities will depend on, the number of staff, type of work, size of the working premises and location of staff and location of working premises. As far as number of staff is concerned it depends on the above factors but generally there should be one first aider for 50 to 100 employees. Where hazards are greater there should be one first aider for every 50 employees. (cushway. 2002)
Employers are also required to provide hygienic drinking water, Canteens and cafeteria, sufficient number of latrines; adequate washing places and changing rooms at the workplace. Proper lighting and seating arrangements are also statutory welfare requirement.
Non statutory welfare benefits:
According to Armstrong & Mulis (1988) employee welfare benefits are forms of remuneration provided in addition to cash pay. Such benefits provide a quantifiable value for individual employees and may be contingent like a pension scheme, sick pay and insurance cover. Such benefits also include elements which are not strictly remuneration such as annual holidays. The objectives of such employee benefits policies and practice of an organization might be, to increase commitment of the staff to the organizations, to provide for the actual personal needs of the employees such as personal security, financial security, to demonstrate that organization cares for the needs of its employees, to ensure that a competitive compensation package is provide in order to attract and retain highly valuable staff and to provide a method of remuneration which reduces tax liabilities. (Armstrong & Mulis.1988)
Cushway (2002) employer is not legally bound to provide benefits, above minimum statutory entitlements. But employers provide just because to be competitive in the job markets and encourage staff satisfaction and motivation. Such benefits include pensions, cars, medical insurance, death-in-service benefits, holidays, sick pay, relocation expenses, maternity and paternity leave, sports facilities, loans and child care facilities. (Cushway. 2002)
Principle types of benefits include:
Pension has always been an important and valuable element of remuneration package. The question arises here is why organizations provide pension schemes for its employees and what are the benefits of providing it. According to Armstrong & Mulis (1988) historically employers provided pensions for the following reasons. It an employer perceived moral obligation to provide a standard of post retirement living for employees particularly for those with long service. The logic also extends to providing pensions arrangements for dependents on a current or retired employee's death. Similarly a pension scheme demonstrates that employer has a long interest of employees at heart. Apart from this pension scheme may help organizations in retaining and attracting staff. (Armstrong & Mulis.1988)
Employer sponsored funded pensions are the means used by organizations to meet human resource management objectives. Occupational pensions play vital role first in attracting and subsequently retaining staff. According to tailor (2000) pensions scheme play a vital role in limiting employees turnover.
According to Armstrong & Mulis (1988) Personal security includes benefits that enhance employees' personal and family life security with regard to illness, health, accidents and redundancy or life insurance. This also include death in service benefits which is provided as a part of pension scheme or as a separate life assurance cover, such benefits include a multiple of salary to be paid to employees dependents if he or she dies before retirement. The range of salary payable ranges from one to four times and may be dependent on employees' status. Personal accident cover is another form of personal security which provides compensation if an employee is involved in an accident causing serious injury or death. (Armstrong & Mulis.1988)
Permanent health insurance also called long term disability cover provides for a continued income once the provisions of the organizations sick pay scheme are exhausted. It is provided as a security for those struck down with chronic or terminal illness. It is normally paid after six months of sick pay and used to continue till death or retirement or when the employees' pension becomes payable. It is a cheaper than any cover available to individuals. Its costs will vary in relation to any special health risks involved in employment. In order to look after employees health employers need to provide medical facilities and health screening such as X-rays for chest ailments. Although employees are provided statutory sick but most major employers provide extra statutory sick pay for longer than the statutory period. Extra statutory redundancy pay is paid by some organizations that faced redundancy from restructuring or change in business and usually include the following provisions, extra notice compensation, additional payments (service related) and payments given as a loss of office. Policy on redundancy is influenced by what the company can afford but the fact that generosity of treatment may well affect the morale of those whose jobs are safe. (Armstrong & Mulis.1988). Career counselling is one of the benefits offered by some employers to redundant employees is professional help in sorting out what they want to do next.
Another kind of welfare benefits is giving employees some sort of financial assistance. Company loan schemes either provide sums of money to be lent interest free or at favourable interest rates to employees. Small sum to be lent where there is personal hardship. While larger loans are to be lent for defined purposes such as house improvements and purchasing car etc. Repayments are made on regular deductions from salary as agreed by employee and employer. A good employer provides relocation charges to its staff when they moved from one place to another. Companies which offer products and services provide discounts to its employees on such products and services. Another kind of financial assistance is payment of fees for any professional course undertaken by employees. (Armstrong & Mulis.1988)
According to Armstrong & Mulis (1988) in personal needs annual leave entitlements' are a major benefit. Employers are obliged to offer a minimum of 20 days paid holidays per year. Entitlement for holidays begins at the first day at work. Basic holidays are typically five weeks with some organizations offering up to six weeks. Long holidays may also be given in recognition of working unsociable hours or agreeing to flexible working practices. Compassionate leave may also be given to employees if a close relative is ill or die but is subject to formal policy in larger employers. It is a paid leave for short period and unpaid for longer period. The purpose of such leave is to show concern for its employees and to recognize the importance of family life in time of personal hardship. Such leave can do much for employee morale. In today's world women are also active in the workforce and employers need to provide some sort of benefits to them as well such as providing maternity leave till the time their babies are born. All female workers are entitled to 26 weeks maternity leave and to return to work on the same terms and conditions irrespective of working hours, service and status of employment. A women employee has statutory right to continue to benefit from all contractual terms and conditions of employment during the period of ordinary maternity leave except for wage or salary. Such contractual benefits consist of annual leave, public holidays missed. Some companies offer more maternity arrangements like offering full salary for longer than six weeks. According to Armstrong one engineering company reported offering 52 weeks full pay in order to attract more female employees. Where organizations employee large number of women and is dependent on their skills and knowledge generosity in the form of maternity leave can help with long term recruitment and retention. (Armstrong & Mulis.1988). Some organizations also provide paternity leave. According to which an employee is eligible for paternity leave if he expects to have the responsibility of upbringing of the baby and is the baby biological father. The parental and maternity leave came into force on 15 Dec1999. Parents of children with children under age of five with more than one year service are entitled for 13 weeks of unpaid parental leave for each child. (Armstrong & Mulis.1988).
Apart from what discussed above adoption leave, child care and pr retirement counselling, personal counselling, sports and social facilities are some of the other welfare services provided by the companies.
Opportunities for learning, training and development
According to Armstrong (1999) some of major organizations provide opportunities of personal growth and development for its employees. Employees learning means to develop firms' resource based capability. According to Human Resource Management principle it is necessary to invest in employees in order to develop human capital required by firm and to increase its stock of knowledge and skills. According to Human capital theory the skills and knowledge that an employee has which comes from learning and training generates a stock of productive capital. So it is very much important for a firm to develop conducive leaning and innovative environment. (Armstrong.1999)
Armstrong (1999) further says that organizations also provide training to its employees in order to achieve its objectives by adding value to the people it employs. Organizations invest in people in order to improve their performance and make them use their natural abilities. The purpose of training is to develop the competence of employees and to help employees to grow within the organization. Effective training can: reduce learning costs, improve individual, quality and overall productivity, can attract people by providing training and development opportunities, develop a positive culture in the organization and can increase employees' level of satisfaction. (Armstrong.1999)
Minor (1995) further add that some firms also provide coaching for development which is a process of building a working environment which enhances the development of skills and the performance of employees. Development is to identify the activities of to prepare staff for greater scope in their current or future positions. Employee development increases personal growth and job satisfaction of employees. Such development increases staff productivity and performance, increases employees retention, motivate employees and enables staff to respond quickly to change. From employee point of view it is important because it helps employee to grow, keeps skills current, increases employee's involvement in decision making and provide greater visibility and exposure to information. (Minor.1995)
Counselling at workplace
Counselling at work place is another welfare service provided by organizations. According to Highley & Cooper (1996) Counselling at workplace is aimed at helping employees (and sometime their families) to deal more effectively with personal, family and work related problems. The growth of counselling at work place is the result of a number of influences particularly stress as a real phenomenon within organizations. Stress is widely recognized as a major contributor to sickness, absence, lack of mental well being and other problems in the workplace. Stress at work is caused by both personal and work related issues. Workplace counselling programmes in order to be effective must address both personal and work related issues. Highley & Cooper (1996) further says that occupational stress presents a major threat to the financial position and profitability of the firm. So an organization is to consider what it can do to reduce workplace stressors. Counselling programme needs to be positioned in order to increase the value of the benefits in organizational areas and to ensure that it offers support to those involved in change and any other company developments. (Highley & Cooper.1996)
Flexible Working Pattern
Papalexandris & Kramar (1997) says that organizations provide flexible working arrangements for a variety of reasons. The most important is economics reasons and in order to improve productivity and competitiveness, other reasons include a change in the composition of the workforce and the use of flexible patterns as way of recruiting and retaining staff. Some time organizations are required to arrange flexible working pattern as a consequence of industrial agreement. Flexible working arrangements have economic and social benefits. Both Papalexandris & Kramar (1997) further says that flexible working pattern not only improves productivity and competitiveness but is also recognized as way of reducing unemployment and as an important tool for reconciling work and family life. Working conditions like, flexible hours of work, working schedule and job autonomy affects family and employee satisfaction. Poor health, stress and job satisfaction have found to be the outcomes of heavy job demands. Similarly if an employer is not supportive of an employee child care needs considerable stress at work and home is created. So flexible working arrangements meet the needs of business resulting from economical and technological changes and also provide some way to satisfy the needs of employees by attempting to combine employment and family life.
Flexible working arrangements take many forms such as, Flexibility in working time arrangements, flexibility in the number of hours worked and flexibility with regard to place of work. Work and family life policies have a positive effect on employees and on the outcome of organizations. Flexible working arrangements improve employee morale, enhance recruitment and retention, increase productivity and reduce employee absentees. Flexible working patterns in particular can serve a number of organizational purposes such as increasing productivity and competitiveness, fostering organizational change and improving quality of recruitment and retention of employees. Flexible working arrangements can facilitate the reconciliation of work and family needs and allow employees to manage both responsibilities'. (Papalexandris & Kramar.1997)
Impact of Employee Welfare/well being on workplace Productivity
According to Croome (2000) in today's competitive environment firms are being forced to work harder than before in order to increase profitability. Creating a productive workplace provides a critical, multidisciplinary review of the factors affecting workplace productivity. Workplace productivity is a key issue for companies and a small increase in productivity can have high financial returns. Studies have shown that productivity at work place have a very close relationship with work environment. To ensure a healthy working environment should always be the first step towards increasing productivity. Productivity is dependent on four different cardinal aspects; social, personal, organizational and environmental.
Croome (2000) further says that it is hard to give a precise relationship between various individual environmental factors and productivity but sufficient evidence showed that there are environmental settings that decrease dissatisfaction and absenteeism of employees and indirectly enhances productivity. Indoor working environment is a dynamic interaction of social and physical factors which affects productivity, health and comfort of employees. There are number of factors that are conducive to high productivity such as well being, health and comfort of employees. Producing quality work gives employees a sense of fulfilment and satisfaction. Organizations are just beginning to know the benefits of good workplace environment and to acknowledge the notion of healthy work force means a healthy organization. (Croome.2000). Organizational structure also play a vital role in improving employees performance by managing them in way that provide career growth and a balance between work and social life.
Baptiste (2008) says that employee wellbeing at work has attracted much attention because of problems such as absenteeism and accidental injury and is giving way to a broader vision of what a healthier, happier and more productive workforce can achieve in terms of higher performance and productivity. The fundamental principles outlined by Policy makers are that all work age people have the opportunity to make maximum contribution to their organization and enjoy a safer, satisfied and healthy working life. The vision of "Health, Work and well being, caring for the future" has been embraced by companies who has invested in the well being of employees are now reaping the benefits as welfare/wellbeing as work is increasingly recognized as an important factor in organizational success. Staff well being is essential in order for a company to remain efficient and profitable. (Baptiste.2008)
According to Warr (2002) that job related well being refers to staff satisfaction with their jobs in terms of facets like pay, working conditions, job security, training opportunity and team working. Employee wellbeing has a positive impact on performance and productivity because it helps organization to have a healthy workforce. According to Currie (2001) staff should be working in stress free and safe physical environment. Bakke (2005) notes that wellbeing can be linked to promoting of an environment that makes work ,rewarding, exciting, stimulating and enjoyable and proposes that joy filled workplace improve financial performance and productivity. (Baptiste.2008)
For an organization to survive in this competitive world it should ensure a healthy working environment. Important factors of organizational and personal wellbeing involve team working, open communication, flexibility, support and a balance between work and personal life. Employees commit to an organization in return of for certain rewards which can be extrinsic (salary) and intrinsic (belonging and job satisfaction). Affective commitment is viewed as an employee's attachment to the employing organization and a willingness to contribute towards to the attainment of organizational goals. (Baptiste.2008)
On the other hand employees seek employment in an organization that is likely to provide motivator that meets their needs; therefore employers have realized the creating of a work life balance for employees through flexibility and introduction of different working patterns in order to meet individual needs. There are a number of important business related reasons why companies should have work life balance. The first reason is to raise morale and job satisfaction. The single important an organization could do is to improve its performance and bottom line is increase employee morale. Studies showed that when firms' employees are satisfied its financial returns go up. Another important reason of work life balance is to make your staff more productive. Companies having work life initiative programs for its employees found that they reduced absenteeism and increased productivity. People having more control on their work and personal life can intensively focus on their work. Many companies have reported increase in productivity after initiating work life effort. For instance Scott Paper Co; said its work life programs increased production by 35%. (World at work. 2007)
According to Jackson et al (2009) employees' welfare/wellbeing is to promote an environment that makes work, rewarding, flexible, enjoyable and productive. Apart from this compensation practices of an organization also influence productivity in numerous ways. Organizational compensation practices that link employees pay to the organizations financial performance or productivity can help staff to focus on new ways of reducing costs and increasing productivity. When employees pay is tied to performance and productivity, productivity tends to go up. Effective compensation practices motivate employees to make the most of their energy which is important for organizational success. Organizational compensation philosophy should be tied to its strategic objectives of which the most are, attracting and retaining staff and improving productivity. Paying employees competitive wages, giving better than market, rewarding performance and offering valued benefits help organization achieve its goals of attracting and retaining staff and fostering a creative culture and being financially successful.( Jackson et al.2009)
How Welfare benefits Motivate employees
Employees are key to organizational performance. When workers are motivated and have appropriate skills, performance targets are often exceeded. Employee motivation is viewed by many scholars as key to performance improvement. Level of motivation is mixed in the workplace, where some are highly motivated, others wary or only modestly motivated. Employers and managers should expect that their workers vary greatly in their level of motivation. Such variations in the workplace motivation reflect some important realities. The first reality is that people are motivated by different things and vary in their ability to find those things in their job. (Berman.2006)
According to Berman (2006) the strategy of employees' motivation is twofold. The First strategy for organizations is to provide a range of conditions in which employees can find something and satisfy their needs. If we make assumptions about what employees needs are then companies can provide a work environment by providing these conditions. In this case organizations can provide some measure of motivation for its employees and is the case in many workplaces. The second strategy is to discuss face to face to establish what each wants from the other. When one expresses what he wants he has a better chance of getting it. It is well established that employees are motivated by pursuing their needs. There are three types of different needs. First people have physical security needs which includes the ability to pay for food and shelter as well as benefits that provide protection against the loss of this security; retirement contributions and health insurance are becoming important motivators for some employees in recent years, job security is also important one. Secondly employees need acknowledgement and recognition from organizations, most employees like a compliment which acknowledges both their contribution and acceptance contribution in the organization. Some time people a strong need to have their work appreciated while others a stronger need to be part of a group. Acknowledgement can also be shown with salary, promotions, bonuses and formal recognition. The third group of needs are employees need for accomplishment, creativity and growth in order to acquire new knowledge and skills. Employees have a strong need for high achievement and creativity. Employees who do not have this need may
Experience stress as severely de-motivating specially if not accompanied by other extrinsic rewards. (Berman.2006) Another group of needs involve acquisition and use of power. According to Mc Cleland (1985) are motivated by power, affiliation and achievement. Employees' can create programs and develop policies through use of power and also have some meaning control their work such as to design one's own work, work environment or work schedule. Power has positive as well as negative impact. But negative uses of power have highly de-motivated impact on employees. The fifth and last categories of needs are non-work needs that are satisfied through work. Work enables employees to satisfy other needs like, buying a nice house, raising a family, taking vacations and others. These things are important motivators for people, and work allows them to fulfil these things. To take care of one's family and to help them afford a better life style is good example. Many people are highly committed to raising their children and are motivated to organization because of the material benefits it provides in raising their family life. (Berman.2006)
According to Berman (2006) In fact motivation is affected by many different factors and varies among employees. The following factors constitute a general climate for employees' motivation. If all of them are present employee will find something that motivates them. Competitive salary, benefits that meet the needs of employees for economic security and non-work needs (family, vacation), opportunities for learning and development, friendly work relations, feedback, control over work environment and promoting positive supervisory relationship. It can easily be seen that a work environment with the above conditions provide a significant amount of motivation for employees. (Berman.2006)
Impact of welfare Benefits on Employee Retention
Employee retention has become a perplexing problem for many organizations. Keeping turnover level below target and managing retention is one of the important issues faced by business. The question is how to retain employees in order to reduce employee turnover. Tsai & Wang (2005) says that according to social exchange theory, the more valuable the activity of another is to a person, the more valuable approval he gives in return. So according to theory firm that offers more voluntary compensation should have a better chance of attracting and retaining good employees to contribute their knowledge and skills. Studies contend that giving employees benefits are a good means of motivating, attracting and retaining skilled workers. Keeping that in view many organizations provide benefits programme to develop employees' skills in the belief that such investment will strengthen their human capital. (Tsai & Wang, 2005) Employee benefits help organizations to recruit and retain high skilled workers that are seen as strategic resources in achieving competitive advantage. Overall attractiveness of firms can be enhanced through benefits and that employees will then be influenced to feel greater satisfaction and loyalty. (Tsai & Wang, 2005)
This chapter discussed the available literature on the concept of employee welfare programs and benefits, why organizations provide welfare benefits to employees and how such welfare benefits increase firm's productivity and help organizations in attracting and retaining qualified people. There are different views about these questions. According to Marsh & Kleiner (2004) employee welfare benefits represents any form of compensation provided other than direct wages, paid in part or in whole by employer, such benefits serve different social and economic needs. According to Forsyth (2006) employees do not work for just a wage or salary. It is usually a whole compensation package and should be provided with the intentions to motivate employees. The purpose of such package is to attract and retain employees by encouraging them to remain with the organization.
At the same time some there are arguments against the provision of welfare programs. According to Armstrong (1999) welfare programs are provided by state services why industrial, public or commercial organizations should provide such services. Staff out of work activities should not be the concern of organizations.
But still industrial and commercial organizations provide welfare programs for different reasons firstly to motivate and retain employees, Secondly to improve employees' performance, health, social status and economic condition. The logic behind welfare programs is to prepare efficient, loyal, healthy and satisfied workers for the organizations. Services such as medical facilities, education for employees families and help in improving their life living standard and makes employees to concentrate on their job. Productivity is a key issue and a small increase in productivity can result in strong financial returns. So a healthy work environment should always be a first step towards improving firms' productivity. Providing welfare programs improve firms' productivity and promote a healthy work environment.
According to Berman (2006) Competitive salaries, benefits that meet the needs of employees for economic and non-work needs, opportunity for learning and development and friendly work relationship provide a significant amount of motivation for employees.
Retention is key issue in today's competitive business world and organizations should offer something more than wage and salary in order to keep key employees. According to social exchange theory that firm that offers more voluntary compensation have better chance of retaining employees to contribute their knowledge and skills. (Tsai & Wang, 2005)
Research needs scrupulous arrangement and thorough study by the researcher. It is important to map out what apt route of research should be taken. This chapter illustrates and appraise available options of research methodology and also elucidates underlying principle that should be utilized at the preliminary and juncture phase of the research methodology. The stipulation of assortment of a species of research methodology is having clear understanding of the pertinent research area. Therefore, primary and secondary research prerequisite will be carried out in this research.
When research is conducted and opposed data is accumulated directly from respondents or research subjects for the purpose of project is called empirical or primary research e.g. personal interviews where informants were interviewed about issues being studied. Secondary research arises when a project necessitates a summary or appraisal of compilation of data (Saunders et al, 2003). Secondary data can be collected from three mains sources e.g. published data, internal documentation, and feedback provided by industry experts or workers. In fact, this methodology chapter depends profoundly on secondary data for the recognition of distinctive performance.
Existed research approaches
Theoretically we have some clear understanding of 'research objectives', but now need to explicate the methodology so reader can know 'how' and 'why '. According to Yin (1994) the research questions should be formulated in terms of 'how' and 'why' rather than what, who or where.
Yin (1994) arguments proved that the methodological approach mainly explanatory rather than descriptive. There are two common research methods have been used: qualitative and quantitative each method has its own pros & cons. Any of them approach can be implemented to execute the research. Another famous and most used research approach is to combine both quantitative and qualitative to congregate aims and purpose of the research in a more inclusive way (Prasad, 2005).
Yin (1994) predicted that in future, most researches will have combine methods rather than one. Bringing both facts together qualitative and quantitative will be exceptional strength of the case study method (Yin, 1994).
Quantitative approach is delineated as the numerical representation and management of observations for the purpose of explicating the phenomena that observation reflects, and qualitative method defined as non numerical assessment and analysis of observations for the determination of underlying meaning and pattern of relationships (Denscombe, 2002). Qualitative method is also called an "interpretivist" approach or "relativist" paradigm while quantitative describes as a "positivist" approach. interpretivist argued that data can be collected by an assortment of factors e.g. views of different people, like previous researches, etc While, positivist claimed that data can be assessed by scientifically like experiments, surveys, numerical estimation, assumption, etc (Hyde, 2000).
Strauss & Corbin (1990) further argued that qualitative and quantitative schools are linked with deductive and inductive approaches, respectively. Deductive process refers to theory & tests it, and inductive approach refers to making observations in order to develop a new hypothesis. Deductive approach of qualitative research works from general to specific, usually it is also called 'top down' approach. In this approach arguments commence from the theory about selected topic and then narrow that down to more specific hypothesis in next stage that assumptions can be tested, and further collected observations address the hypothesis. This method leads researcher to test the hypothesis with specific data for authentication of original theory e.g. experiments. While, Inductive approach of quantitative works vice-versa in this approach arguments start from specific observation to broader overview and theory. It is also called 'bottom up' approach. In social research both approaches can be used together (jupp & Noris 1993).
Sampling is the procedure of choosing of units e.g. people and organisations from the population of the interest, by doing this process it may help researcher to generalise his results back to the selected population. Commentators argued that the main reason behind this activity in terms of sampling is to recognize representativeness of paradigm rather than statistical representativeness (Hyde, 2000). Before selecting method of the sampling the question should keep in a first place that who do you want to generalize to? There are three types of sampling random, judgement, and convenient. Each method has its own procedure and differs in the approach subject to the units. Convenient approach is suitable when specific people have been chosen from population for observation; a judgement sample can be collected when some one is recognized with pertinent feature of the population and finally random sampling usually used in lottery and raffles, where a number of respondents selected randomly (Akingbola, 2004).
In this research data will be collected by three primary traditional processes, including case study, questionnaire, and interviews. Employees and their management have been selected as a subject of sampling frame questionnaire will be distributed and telephonic interview will be taken conversant with the statistical data that is, the working condition at workplace and employee welfare data. Questionnaire and interview questions are designed to ascertain the views of the respondent. After receiving questionnaire and interview feedback, data will be arranged. All received data will be analysed and combine together in analysis chapter with graph and charts.
Selected research method
Both research methods have an equally reputable place in business and management researches. This research falls in the category of qualitative research that requires critical analysis and elucidation. The apt research tools will be followed to collect data e.g. interviews, questionnaire, and academic journals will be used as an instrument to gather data.
The case study approach
The case study research approach will be implemented to identify problems at workplace in selected organisation. There is no valid definition of the case study. Case study can be defined as a tool to collect the research knowledge of the practitioners and expanding theory from it. Most commentators argued that the case study analyse an observable fact in its natural setting, using multiple process of data collection to accumulate information from one or few entities i.e. organisation, people, and groups, it is useful here to contrast this method with others approaches ordinary adopted by management researchers (Benbasat et al, 1987).
According to Yin (1997) both research methods qualitative and quantitative have been confused within the title of the case study approach. Selecting one or another kind each one has different interpretation regarding the possible development over the decade time (Yin, 1997). Further, Yin (1997) claimed that firstly, the method relies on the use of and capability to integrate in converging fashion (data from multiple sources of evidence). The information may include from direct observation, archrivals, interviews, and documents. The evidence and conclusions for the case study can be built around the reliability of data from these sources, and further conclusion can be illustrated in both qualitative and quantitative terms. Secondly, the process of concluding the result of either type of case study depends on the development, testing, and replication of theoretical proposition rather than selection of numerical selections (Yin, 1997).
Flyvberg (2006) describes the importance of case study research that theoretical knowledge is more important than practical knowledge. He further, described more misunderstanding about case study research approach. Including that the result can not generalise from single case study, the case study is more helpful approach to generate hypothesis whereas, other approaches are more appropriate for testing hypothesis and theory building (Flyvberg, 2006).
Flyvberg (2006) research proved that the case study is a detailed appraisal of a single example and it gives reliable information about the topic or issues. Case study approach also can be used in initial stage of an investigation to make hypothesis. John Waltson (1992) similarly observed that case study is likely to create the best theory (Quoted in Flyvberg, 2006).
Yin further differentiates between three kinds of use of case study research: descriptive, exploratory and explanatory. In exploratory method a pilot study can conducted as a basis for formulating more accurate related questions or testable hypothesis, and descriptive method usually contrasted with prediction and prescription e.g. investigate and predict what happens when machinery break down in factory. Descriptive methods evaluate and select choices. Finally, explanatory method of case study is evaluates and looked upon with uncertainty and scepticism. This type of method has been described as a best strategy approach in studying processes in any organisation (Bratt, 1998)
In order to determine suitable case studies will be analysed for this research. There are many types of method existed to collect date from case studies including interviews, archival records, documents, direct and participant observation. In this research appropriate method will be used to generate data e.g. interviews, and archival records and documents. Case study approach can be more useful, convincing, and accurate if data is collected from several different sources of information. The findings might not be entirely representative of thousands of factory workers due to the limited of time a numbers of employees will be interviewed and data will also be collected from company archival records, magazine, annual financial reports, and other documents.
Interview is an important research method that can be conducted in different forms and types. Interview could be based on different research guidelines depend on research type. There are three main types used and these include structured, semi structured and unstructured interviews.
For this research semi structured interview has been selected as a tool to collect data. The reason being that, a semi structured interview consists of both open and closed questions. According to saunders (2000) semi structured is a kind of depth interview style that provides opportunity to interviewer to "probe" answers where you want your interviews to explain, or build on, interviewee responses (Saunders, 2000).
Semi structured interview is the most used interview technique in qualitative research. It helps to create a better understanding of certain information and useful method for data collection. While, during informal unstructured Interview questions are not put in any particular order and interviewer might limit him self to testing a few questions (Bratt, 1998).
Time management can be a vital issue for interviewer. Semi structured interviews have to be scheduled with a list of questions in different categories and sections. In order to construct all sections, the use of coding can be applied. This process enables the interviewer to arrange and collect data that obtained from interviews. Further, the coding method can be used to arrange and collect data from the interviews into logical order collected data can be analysed in finding chapter (Akingbola, 2004).
The purpose of this method is to make easier for the interviewer to take notes when carrying out the interview with the interviewee. Saunders (2000) recommended this approach and further argued that this approach is time saving, normally well tested, and enables interviewer to compare collected result with other surveys (Saunders, 2000).
A structural interview can be considered as an oral presentation of written questions. During in structured interviews the interviewer reads out the question and the person being interviewed will give his responses. A fix numbers of question normally used in a structured interview. In structured interview questions usually prepared in advance. In this approach it is easy to retrieve answers related issues of special importance and analysis of result is very easy and quantified. Both approaches can be used in telephonic and face to face interviews (Hislop, 2004).
A telephonic interview provides more realistic evidence for the existence of the organisation ability questions remain as same but method of collecting data, observation and judgement can be changed (Daellenbach et al, 2002). In this research a telephonic interview will be taken from interviewee (HR Manager of the company) to absorb answers of those research questions that have not been found in literature, on company website and in archival record. All methods for data collection have both features advantages and disadvantages. There is a substantial risk that these approaches of acquiring data may lead to superficiality (Bratt, 1998). For example, if researcher collects data from employees of chosen organisation and published worse story in news paper. Once data collected Respondent feedback would be thoroughly analysed under following questions and findings will be discussed in result chapter.
- To investigate and identify employee welfare/benefits provided by the selected organization, to highlight welfare problems and to Provide Suggestions to improve employees' job satisfaction, working conditions and Health and safety issues at workplace
- To find out impact of welfare benefits on employees' performance and workplace productivity
- To find out how welfare benefits help organizations in retaining staff?
- To investigate and identify why organizations provide welfare benefits and how they affect employees?
The second method used for collecting data was questionnaire. It was mainly used for collecting data from employees of the organization. Questionnaire can be defined as a cross sectional survey technique by this method researcher collects further data from fieldwork to analyse and answer the research questions. Well organised questionnaire provides useful data and opinions of different relatively quickly. Questionnaire is very cost effective and time saving method to collect data when compared to face to face interview.
Questionnaire is a method of fact finding that needs good planning, design, and careful use of language. It is very important to ensure that apt questions are asked in order to meet the objectives of the research. Before designing questionnaire important points should be considered, including what kind of data is needed to answer the research questions and needs to recognise that who will be respondent. (Bell .2005)
Further, Bell & Opie (2002) argued that a well design questionnaire gives researcher better information and that data can be easily interpreted at analysis stage. There are two types of questionnaire that has been used in research to collect data, these are including open and closed ended questionnaire. Close questionnaire possesses list of choices and respondent choose a right answer. It has advantage of making analysis easy. However, this method has disadvantages as well. For example, researcher may know answers of the particular questions. While, open ended questionnaire allows the respondent to answer in as much depth and it provides data that reflect their true feeling (Bell et al, 2002).
In this research, questionnaire asks participants about welfare programs provided by the Company at work place such as messing and toilets facilities, training facilities, Holidays entitlement, working hours, flexibility in working pattern, medical facilities and other welfare Programs. This questionnaire also asks employees about Company promotion policy, health and safety issues at workplace, etc. Research questionnaire will help researcher to identify and collect data about employees' problems at workplace. All obtained data will be thoroughly analysed in analysis chapter.
Data analysis method
In qualitative research, data gathering and analysis is concurrent process. Wolcott (1994) claimed that data can be collected through by different methods as participant interviewing and observation, it is important to analyse collected data in analysis chapter to pass through for science. Analysis always recommends something of the scientific mind at work, inherently conservative, careful, and systematic (Wolcott, 25:1994). There are many ways and strategies to analyse data these are including highlight your findings, display your findings, follow and report a systematic field work procedures, compare with another case, compare with standard, and critique the research etc (Wolcott, 1994).
This research follows display your findings analysis method. In this method researcher analyse and present evaluated data in graph, tables, diagrams, figures and in chart (Wolcott, 1994). All these graphics reflects the way that the researcher interprets observation with better concept.
Both research methods qualitative and quantitative necessitates ethics to be taken into consideration both during and after research. For example, if someone collects data from respondent and publishes them in newspaper without respondent permission, it is totally against ethics. Commentators recommend that Include honesty in reporting the findings will be guaranteed (Hislop, 2004). It is to be acknowledged that participants might be harmed as consequences of their participation in survey including, injury, stress, death, reduction etc. therefore, all collected data should be treated confidential.
In this research confidentiality will be applied and acquired data from fieldwork will be only used for research purpose. Ethical approval should be taken to conduct research from concerned body at university and allocated supervisor.
Kumar (2005) argued that in qualitative research all acquired data ought to be presented in written format not in figure form. (Kumar, 2005)
The second limitation is research questionnaire might give researcher little information. Third limitation is some time respondent do not wants to fill out questionnaire and research may get delay. Fourth limitation is the time factor. Usually respondent do not fill out questionnaire on time or practitioners do not show availability for interview and project may delay. Fifth the questions included in research questionnaire should not be taken from literature e.g. journals, books etc. The questionnaire questions should explore matter and should not leave any vagueness unattended. Finally, if a company show its willingness to participate in research may hide some important documents from researcher.
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