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Discrimination At Work Business Essay

Forms of discrimination

The aim of equal opportunities laws is to create such platform so that workers are employed, trained, paid and promoted on the basis of their abilities and skills. Discrimination at workplace occurs when an officer treats one worker less favorably than another employee. It is defined as any distinction or preference made on the basis of race, color, religion, social origin or national extraction and political opinion. Discrimination can stifle development, perpetuate poverty, competitiveness and productivity and ignite political instability. Direct discrimination occurs when a senior officer gives less importance to an employee than others on the basis of gender, marital status, disability, color etc. This type of discrimination occurs in the case when the job is open only for the male candidate. There might be circumstances when an employee can take such decision on the basis of occupational requirement. Indirect discrimination happens when rules and working conditions are disadvantageous for one group of workers than the other groups. It will be allowed when there is no other option or it is necessary for the business purpose. Harassment is another form of discrimination. The employees do not have right to make fun of other at the workplace. It is basically means intimidating or offensive behavior of an employee whose aims is to undermine injures or humiliates the target of other employees. This occurs when somebody distribute some sexually explicit material or calling someone with offensive nickname. Victimization occurs when somebody is treated badly because they have tried to made complaint against discrimination. There might be a case when this activity will prevent you to go on training courses and senior official can take an unfair disciplinary action and exclude you from the social events of the company. (forms of discrimination)

Legislative framework regarding to discrimination at workplace

Legislative framework, which covers discrimination on the grounds of race and gender, has been in action since 1970s. The disability discrimination act was effective from year 1995. During the last few years these acts have been gone through various numbers of amendments and extensions on many topics like age, religion or belief, sexual orientation and part time or fixed term working. The employment equality regulations are introduced in year 2006. In the 1970s, the commission for equal opportunities was set up. The responsibilities of these commissions are to work towards the elimination of discrimination. They should also promote equality of good relation and opportunity between the employees of different racial group. The disability rights commission which set up in 2000 has same responsibilities in respect of the disabled employees, although they do not have enough power to check employers. These policies and rules forced the organizations to create such an environment which is free from discrimination. Those employees who feel that they are unlawfully discriminated during the employment or recruitments can file their case at employment tribunal against the organization. This tribunal provides a medium through which an employee registered the case and if he wins the case then he will be awarded by compensation. The equal pay act was introduced in year 1970. According to this act, every employees of both sexes have right to receive the same salary if their post and their work are similar. The organization can not discriminate employees on the basis sex if they are working on the same position. The fixed term employees regulation was came into action in year 2002. This law is basically designed to prevent employees, who work on fixed term, who are not treated well just like other permanent employees. This law creates such a working environment where the new fixed term or part time employees can works easily and freely. (legislative framework)

Range of current initiatives which focus on equal opportunities

Equal opportunities at the workplace refers to the equal distribution of opportunities for training, education, career development and employment without being discriminated on the basis of race, sex, language, family or economic situation and religion. Equal employment opportunity policies are communicated and administered to provide an effective work environment for all their workers. There are various state laws and federal to cover the major issues of the equal opportunities. Formal equalities give the liberal notion on the equal opportunities that basically emphasized on the procedural equality. According to this, every employee is helped to compete on a basis of the individual talents. It is necessary to remove the sources of discrimination so that the employees are able to work with their full strength. Substantive equality basically concerns for an equitable distribution in workplace practices in order to achieve fair distribution of outcomes. The job description and its associated conditions should be defined on the basis of experience, qualifications and other skills and include those factors which are necessary for the satisfactory performance for the job. The criteria for any job vacancy should not be done on the basis of genders, religion, caste and etc. All the job applicants are treated equally throughout the selection and the recruitment process and they should get equal opportunities to express their views. All the decisions should be made by the council member of equal opportunities and selection and recruitment department. The decision should be made according to the skills and job requirements set for a vacant seat. It is a responsibility of the employees to create such a working atmosphere which is free from bullying, victimization, harassment and discrimination and where all the complaints are properly listened and investigated. This kind of atmosphere helps in promoting equal opportunities in the workplace. Every employee should respect the culture and identity of their fellow mates. It is the responsibility of the senior official to see that every employee is getting a transparent, fair and equal chance in development and learning and in the terms and conditions for the service. Government has made various policies and rule to provide the equal opportunities to the disable person. While taking an interview, all the applicants should be considered on the basis of their skills, merit and ability. If a candidate has any disability then it is responsibility of the organization to provide him all facilities and treat them as equal as other candidate. It is an offense if you discriminate any one on the basis of disability. The monitoring of an organization by the employees is necessary to determine the performance of the employee whether they are discriminating anyone or they are providing equal opportunities. If you are worried about the data that how it will be stored, shared or accessed, then be reassured that this data is kept confidential according to the data protection act 1998. (equal opportunities)

Compare and contrast managing diversity and equal opportunities

There are various differences and similarities in the policies of managing diversity and equal opportunities. The practice of equal opportunities is basically legislatively imposed by the government on the organizations to reduce discrimination on the basis of race, ethic origin, sex and other factor which are irrelevant for any job. Its perspective and orientation is equity and social justice in the organization. In UK with this regulation and external imposition and legislative the discriminations even persists in UK organizations. That means there are various organizations which do not have practices and policies to implement equal opportunities. There are some workplaces where they have adopted these practices in order to be a responsible people or because of the fears of social pressures and legal sanctions. The policies of equal opportunity are not imposed internally by the management but it is imposed externally and main concern is social pressures not individualistic. The policies of managing diversity and equal opportunities address some disadvantage of the minority groups and give more opportunities for the advancement of carrier and reduce the discriminatory practices in promotion, training, selection, compensation and pay in the workplace. The policies give advantage to them to work with the labor force and integrate society. In contrast the managing diversity basically focus on diversity practices which enhances effectiveness of the organization and also enhance the bottom line results. These policies of diversity management are directed towards the individual rather than groups. It identifies various talents and values of minority groups and women in a job or particular section, which is beneficial for an organization. Its orientation is not equality or equity and social justice but how will harness the diverse working force to enhance their working force. In contrast to equal opportunities it is driven by imperatives of management rather than by external imposition. The managing diversity is individualistic in its orientation not social. (equal opportinities and managing diversity)

Types of appraisal

The appraisal method helps the employees to learn about their performance by providing them a way to keep the account for their actions. The direct managers and human resource departments basically focused on building efficient appraisal systems for their firms. Some of the popular appraisal methods are the behavioral observation method, the management by tools and 360-degree performance appraisal. First appraisal method is management by objective method. This appraisal type helps an organization to exceed or meet goals by involving employees in the process goal setting. The top officials meet with the employees to plan the required goals. This system helps to develop empowerment within the workers and to improve job satisfaction and motivation. The advantage of this appraisal method is its ability to rate the employees basically based on facts not on behaviors. Some organizations decide that they will not use this method because it is very difficult to determine which goals are realistic and which one is out of reach. Another method is behavioral observation method. This method will help the organization to identify the weaknesses and strengths of their employees. The managers observes the actions of the employees whether they are completing their daily tasks and with how much efficiency. According to that analysis the managers will ranked their employees, give the review and performance success. This appraisal methods is easy to implement and effective because the managers can easily determine the patterns and trends about working efficiency of the employees. The problem with this method is that a manager should have good understanding about the affective job performance and has time to observe their workers. Another type of appraisal is 360 degree performance. This is used to retrieve information about the employee’s performance based on the perspective of individual and the group of people. These groups include customers and managers. This method helps an organization to measure accurately the abilities and skills of the employees from the actual people who are working with them. The disadvantage is that is very time consuming and many resources are needed. (types of appraisal)

Feedback methods in performance management

Feedback methods are very important for the performance management. Feedback is the only way through which an employee is able to know about his performance and views of others about his working. There are various feedback methods such as paired comparison analysis, critical incident method, essay evaluation method, graphic rating scales, performance ranking method, behaviorally anchored rating scales and forced ranking. The critical incident feedback method is a method in which the top official of the company analyze the negative and positive performance behavior of the workers throughout the job period. In the paired comparison analysis each option is compared with the other options and then the result is tallied and according to that the option with highest score is preferred. In the graphic rating scales feedback method, the managers check the performance level of the employees and according to that the grade are given. In the easy evaluation method managers are asked to describe the weaknesses and strengths of behavior of employees. It is a non quantitative technique usually used with graphic rating scale method. Behaviorally anchored rating scales method is used to describe the performance rating that basically focused on behaviors or sets as an indicator of ineffective or effective performance. Performance ranking method is used to determine employee performance from worst to best. Forced ranking is a method to rank any employee but in forced distribution order. For example, the distribution is required with 10 percent in bottom, 70 or 80 percent in middle and 10 or 20 percent in top category.

Human resources practices in the workplace

For any organization or corporation the workforce is considered as most important asset. So the main area of concerns is the health of a workforce. With the rapid expansion of industrialization, the practices of the employees are also grow which results in exposition of employees to wide ranging and emergent set of health risks. The hazards and risks at the workplace are quite very similar but the challenges faced by the employers are inevitable. Recently the world health organization stated that the accidents and occupational diseases claimed about 250 million occupational injuries, 160 million cases of work related diseases and 335,550 fatalities. The death rate reached to 1.2 million from the 2,700 million working population of the world, estimated by the ILO. The diseases are categorized into eight groups according to costs of the work related diseases. The groups are Neurosystem diseases and injuries, Occupational dermatoses, mental disorders, respiratory system illnesses, cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, Cancers. The whole world is facing 160 million cases yearly which are related to the workplace illness and 1.7 million deaths due to this reason. The risks at the occupation are responsible for 16% hearing loss, 37% of back pain, 11% of asthma, 9%of lung cancer and 13% of pulmonary diseases. The major causes of ill heath at workplace are stress related illness, dermatitis; musculoskeletal disorders, occupational asthma and noise induced hearing loss. The concept of occupational health in general term is the effects of health on work and effects of work on health. In the more specific term it is defined as the creation of such a working environment that will promote and encourage the positive health of employees working in that organization. The major reason for the ill health at work costs are increased insurance claims, increased staff turnover, increased injuries and accident. The WHO estimates that the numbers of cases due to accident at work are 68-157 million and 30 -40% are suffering from chronic disease and 10% are suffering from permanent disability. The benefits of health programs at the workplace are job satisfaction, better working environment, customer satisfaction, reduced absenteeism and better employee relations. (human resources practice at workplace)

Impact of globalization

A rapid changing economy, deregulation of markets, product market competition and changing investor and customer demands such phenomenon is characterized as globalization which has become the basic norm for most of the firms. They must improve their performance, if they want to compete, by innovating processes and products productivity, improving quality, reducing cost and speed to market. A set of particular human resources planning is required in order to do this. HR practices for an organization are the most sophisticated, the most efficient and the most advance basis for obtaining and organizing high performance from the employees because it basically integrates the interest of the employees and an organization. Due to globalization culturally diverse workforce is created. People from the different parts of the world are allowed to apply for the job at any organization. The competition will increase for your company’s services and products. An organization is not restricted for the local workforce. They can select any candidate from any country. It is beneficial for those employees who know more than one language. The working environment affects the people in many ways. An employee is able to give his best when he is free from stress. A worker is in stress because of the physical environment of the company or the worries about his family. Due to the globalization, the people migrate from the homeland to some different place and because of this they can not able to work properly. Another impact of globalization is that the people become addict to alcohol and drug abuse. Due to difficult working condition and environment, sometimes the people become addicted to this abuse to make them stress free but it is injurious for their health. Another impact is ergonomics which means the studying the efficiency of employees in the existing working condition. If the environment is not suitable for employees then it will degrades their performance so the company. (impact of globalization)

Impact of multi-cultures to manage culturally diverse workforce

The multicultural workforce in an organization consists of employees who belong to different religion, racial, ethnic and gender. Today’s corporate executives and small business owners recognize that the growing opportunities and challenges associated with the culturally diverse workforce will be a deciding factor for the success of any business. The policies of a company that explicitly forbid discriminatory behavior and forbid prejudice should be included in mission statements, employee manuals and other written communication. The reward and performance appraisal system of an organization will reinforce an importance of efficient diversity management. The organization must select their employees on the basis of their ability not on the culture. Recruitment is a process of screening, attracting and selecting some candidate which is applicable for a particular job and e-recruitment means selecting someone via electronic media like telephone, video conferencing for the job. This type of recruitment helps the organization to eliminate the discrimination which is done on the basis of culture. This will help the organization to maintain workforce which culturally diverse. To maintain the culturally diverse workforce the organization should provides their employees with various flexible benefits. The flexibility at workplace gives freedom to the employees to choose their working time according to their cultural needs. With his initiative, every employee will work with full strength without any worries about their family. With the work life balance program at an organization, the performance, commitment and accountability of an individual will definitely go up. It is necessary for an individual to maintain a perfect balance between the work and life. It is very important for an employee to give equal importance to their work and their family members. An organization allowed their employees to choose their working hours and provide them with different incentive and bonus according to their work. In order to manage diversity at workplace then it is necessary that the HR managers should change their views from the ethnocentric to the culturally relative perspective. (impact of multiculturism)

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