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bureaucratic organizations

The background to change affecting the current organization.

1.Discuss the background to change that exist in today’s economy

2.Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of bureaucratic organizations

3.Compare alternative forms of organizational development

1.Discuss the background to change that exist in today’s economy

The journey of change that organization embarked upon is a permanent one there is no final destination (Taylor 1994) change is something organization often have no choice or control over in order to survive in dynamic businesses environments, organizations have to be prepared to constantly evaluate what they do, making and implementer appropriate change. As we all know change is inevitable and the success of any change is dependent upon not only the way it is implemented but also determine by the staff within the organization, Their ability to respond and have a sense of ownership is also critical to successful change. Successful change is less dependent on detailed plans and projections than on reaching an understanding of the complexity of the issue concerns and identifying the range of available option (Burners 1996).

Change is neither sought after nor welcomed, it is disruptive and intrusive, it upset the balance (Strebel 1996).

Change is inevitable, organization need change to enable them meet the demand in the economy and to adapt to the environment in which they operate .

Change help organization to meet the threat pose by their competitor’s in the market and to satisfy customer’s need & want .The change that exist in today economy is as a result of the following reason

Government type and stability
Freedom of press, rule of law and levels of bureaucracy and corruption
Regulation and de-regulation trends
Social and employment legislation
Tax policy, and trade and tariff controls
Environmental and consumer-protection legislation
Likely changes in the political environment
Stage of business cycle
Current and project economic growth, inflation and interest rates
Unemployment and labour supply
Labour costs
Levels of disposable income and income distribution
Impact of globalization
Likely impact of technological or other change on the economy
Likely changes in the economic environment
Market economy
Population growth rate and age profile
Population health, education and social mobility, and attitudes to these
Population employment patterns, job market freedom and attitudes to work
Press attitudes, public opinion, social attitudes and social taboos
Lifestyle choices and attitudes to these
Socio-Cultural changes
Demography
Impact of emerging technologies (Edgar Schein 1965)
Impact of Internet, reduction in communications costs and increased remote working
Research and Development activity
Impact of technology transfer


2.Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of bureaucratic organizations

Bureaucratic Is an approach to organization which involve specialisation of task, hierarchy, authority and decision making (Dickson et al 1992).He also suggest a slightly different way in which organizations respond to diversity, emphasising the culture aspect of the organization development stages . There are eight major characteristics of what is called the "bureaucratic form." Organization are likely to uses most of these. Virtually all organizations that use the bureaucratic form seem to suffer the same suffocating and immobilizing symptoms that people call "bureaucracy." The characteristics of the bureaucratic organization according to Dickson et al(1992) are as follows:

1.That Most employees blame their organization’s "bureaucracy" on senior management. They assume that management must want it, or it wouldn’t be tolerated.

2.That Senior managers don’t want or like "bureaucracy" any more than the rest of the employees and, the detestable effects of bureaucracy victimize everyone, regardless of level. Senior managers haven’t known what to do to get rid of it. Executives have tried many things to eliminate "bureaucracy," but the "program-of-the-year" approach generally hasn’t worked, because they have been fighting symptoms, not the root cause.

3.They further argue that the root cause of "bureaucracy" is the organizing model, the "bureaucratic form." Yet, the bureaucratic form is so pervasive that its destructive nature is seldom questioned.

4.they continue to explain that If you were starting a new enterprise today, you could avoid "bureaucracy" by using a new organizing model called the "mission-driven" model.

5.They note that existing bureaucratic organizations can reduce the amount of "bureaucracy" by changing one or more of the basic organizing principles, either temporarily or permanently. The steps for de-bureaucratizing by changing basic organizing principles are:

6.Dickson et al (1992)also assert that Management people in the existing organization will need to learn and use new ways of managing and that they will need to learn what they have been doing that adds to the "bureaucracy" in the organization. They will need to learn new ways of doing their jobs that diminish the amount of bureaucracy within the organization. Most importantly, they will need to provide empowerment for those who work for them, and protection and coaching to those who accept and act upon the offered empowerment.

7.They add that people in the organization who currently aren’t managing will play a vital new role in the de-bureaucratized organization and that the labour/management war, if it exists in your organization, must end, they further note that everyone in the organization will need to act as one unified team, driven by a common mission, and aligned by a common vision of the new organization, in that people who today are not formally managing will be grouped into teams in which the brainpower, skills, talents, and experience of the individuals will be harnessed to continuously improve the organization’s quality, service, or both.

8. They Finally contend that the vision of what your organization might look like, and be like, when you have achieved your desired goal state is outlined in detail in "Busting Bureaucracy."They also explain that one will discover the rewards that come from working in an organization of empowered people who are satisfying or even dazzling their customers, and are doing so with few, if any, of the immobilizing and suffocating effects of bureaucracy.

STRENGTHS


Laurie.j.j Mullins 2002 identify the following as some of the strength of bureaucratic model of management.
1.Longevity
2.strong board
3.Market share
4.Strong management team
5.Spread of operations
6.Good trading record
7.Impressive growth shown
8.Good system of logistics
9.Effective flat organization structure
10.High growth in revenue and competitive profit achieved
11.Loyal workforce
12.Investment in technology mean that they are technically adapt
13.Cash generating businesses
14.Quality of resources such as people or asset
15. Innovative aspect of product range
16.Marketing distribution and price
17. Competitive advantage
18.A good reputation in the market.

 

WEAKNESSES.

According to(Laurie.j.j Mullins 2002). The following factors would ideally result in the ideal bureaucratic organization:
1. Lack of direction
2.Obsolete facilities
3.Weak management team
4.Insufficient skills
5.Product with decreasing demand
6.Poor image in the market place
7.Weak financial position
8.Poor quality product /services
9.Cash flow constrains
10.Poor organizational management insufficient process and system
11. Lack of succession strategy
12.Cost control problem
13.UnImpressive growth in turnover
14.Communication problem in group structure
15.Poor forecasting and control
16.Autocratic management style
17.Unwise capital expenditure decision
18.High cost low margin make for difficulties
19.Quality ethic and craftsmanship conflict with the need to be competitive
20.Influential shareholders may impede progress if allow to contribute to decision making.
All this strength and weaknesses has direct impact on the organization as a whole (Laurie.j.j Mullins 2002).
3.Compare alternative forms of organizational development.
Organizational development, according to (Laurie .j. Mullins 2002) is the systematic application of behavioural science knowledge to the planned development of organizational strategies, structures, and processes for maximising performance. It is also asserted that Organizational development is a long term effort which is led and supported by top management to improve an organization visioning, empowerment, learning and problem solving processes through an organization culture with special emphasis on the culture of intact work terms and other team configuration utilizing the consultant – facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science including action research (Laurie .j. Mullins 2002)
On their part, Ken Blanchard and Steve Gottery (2004) explain that much of the research in labour relations and organizational development is concerned with conventional post-industrial revolution business models, featuring private, corporate, or state ownership of the means of production and a hired labour force. These models according to them, almost invariably involve dynamic tension between owners, managers, and workers and that there are ways to structure an enterprise that are predicated on shared ownership by the workforce and democratic management processes. They maintain that although these approaches represent only a fraction of businesses, they stand out as testing beds that encourage "thinking outside the box" and offer many valuable lessons.(Ken Blanchard and Steve Gottery 2004)
The alternative forms of Organization development are
1.Business process re-engineering ,this is a management approach aiming at improving by means of elevating efficiency and effectiveness of the business process that exist within and across organizations.
2.Total quality management, is a management practices throughout the organization geared to ensure the organization consistently meet or exceeds customer requirements. It is focus on process measurement and control as means of continuous improvement.
REF:
1.(Laurie.j.j Mullins 2002).
2.Dickson et al 1992
3 Taylor 1994.
4 Burners 1996.
5. Strebel 1996.
6.Ken Blanchard and Steve Gottery (2004)
7.Edgar Schein 1965.

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