An analysis of organizational behavior
There are several aspects of organizations in current business world. Every organization is putting all its efforts to gain maximum market share, profit and competitive advantages in the market. Organizations have variety of structure that work according to their needs. These structures collectively contribute in the success of organizations through their effective management and behaviors. Organizational behavior is popular study these days business students, managers, and experts related to organizational structure and behavior study the behaviors and behavior systems related to any organization to find the best strategies for future progress of the business and economies. It this investigating we will see several aspects related to these behaviors, culture and structures of organizations.
2 Organizational Structures
Is defined organizational structure as "hierarchical concept of dependency of the entities that collaborate and contribute in the service of a common goal?" I like this definition for several reasons. One is that it is easy to understand and to the point, contrary to the definitions of long ago where during the reading, one forgets the preceding sentence after the transition to the next. The other is that it defines the organizational structure in the form of term spoke harshly to him. Because out of all of the terms management and talismans and the organizational structure is the only truly that - a hierarchical structure that puts the position of each employee in the organization.
Organizational structures thus is sum of all material and legal aspects related to the formation and working of an organization.
While the organizational structure is still a very old concept, and over the years that have passed catch up with the evolution of business models today. It also kept the new models of business in the cultivation of crops, and management processes necessary to keep up to date so that the organization can extract the best of its structure. Can be divided line organizational structures to the pre-and post-bureaucratic bureaucracy. And organizational structures based on the oldest industrial more on the line kingdoms in terms of leadership and communication not only in one direction, from a higher level of authority to the lower level. The lower levels also ordered to obey and not expected to give any feedback. And began the latest structures that have emerged in the 1970s, and encourage two-way communication, and to consider proposals to allow the lower levels.
Types of organizational structures mean that the foundation that has been designing the organizational structure of the business sector. The basis of the organizational structure to be either jobs or the people. Let's look at them one by one.
3.1 Functional structure
In the structure and functional, the organization is divided on the basis of functions performed by them, in departments such as production, sales and marketing, and management of human resources, accounts, and so on in each of the technical departments, staff implement a range of similar tasks. There is a new structure within each section. For example, a model of marketing management.
3.2 People structure
there is structure to divide the people in charge of the divisions for different products. As the description suggests, this structure will be used by those companies that produce more than one product. For example, you can divide the company car to the small car division, the Division of SUV and truck division, etc.
3.3 Matrix structure
It is quite clear that in very large organizations that would not be possible to just be one of the two structures. Large institutions, which have a large number of people in need to work and the structure that is a combination of all structures and functional and the people. This so-called matrix structure. In the structure of the matrix, and is divided into sections: the first organization and then to the departments.
The best organizations in the world today are beyond the formal organizational structures and trying to form structures of lower limits. Although very few companies today have been successfully implemented, the idea of executing companies is very simple: to be of the Organization where no one is indispensable. And encourages everyone to cross the dividing lines and the official work in other departments of the company to be 'comprehensive employee' in the. He called and was also pleased to also break the monotony.
Matrix organizational structure that combines two types of organizational structures and are the product structure and an organizational structure and a purely functional to create a unique combination of the work environment. This organizational structure and design is most useful for appointments when you are working in projects because in this and professionals working with the forces of several distinct and will be contracted out to perform tasks. For example, a matrix organizational structure has hired several engineers to carry out a similar function in the compilation of their experiences. That is, which one company produces two kinds of products with the same team of professionals.
The following article takes you to a detailed explanation of what a matrix organizational structure and what it's various properties.
Each institution needs to do to the structure of jobs in the company correctly. This is intended to bring order in a world of chaos and give the organizational culture was structured so that the effective performance becomes possible. Organizational structure means that the organization need any type of hierarchy so that there is an appropriate division of duties and responsibilities of different units can work in harmony at work in order to reach the ultimate goal.This is the need for which was responsible for the formation of several types of organizational structure in the companies. In the following article, however, we must focus on one type of structure and this is the organizational structure of the matrix. If there was any confusion than ever in this issue, read the following article to learn more about the organizational structure and a matrix of what it involves.
Typically, this structure has two or more employers and workers on the project to submit a report to each and every one of them. Therefore in the matrix organizational structure, and the exchange of information becomes mandatory to perform an effective and smooth. It would be for each project and project manager of various teams and is expected to report to him with their work. That in turn directly reports to the President of the organization or authority such as the proposed Vice-President. There is also a functional management (chaired by Director of the Department) is responsible for maintaining the technical functions of the organization by making sure to maintain a sound and technical progress and excellence through work and organizational leadership skills.
Because of the unique composition of this structure, there are many advantages to be seen. Here are some of them:
• A specialized team is selected on the basis of the merits of their work and the tasks that they undertake.
• needs of the project is the only criterion for the recruitment of professionals. Allowing more opportunities for success.
• Since the key people are appointed as part of one team are also working within the framework of the other teams, becomes a matter of cost-effective because it is less than the cost of the project.
• the structure is not balanced that there will be a proper balance between time, cost and performance.
• conflicts less likely to occur, and even if they do, are easily resolved because they are hierarchical setup.
• Project Manager is solely responsible for ensuring that the project is completed on time and within budget. Therefore, other than the obvious problems that do not arise, and there is less chance of external factors that affect the project.
• There is more chance of success because a lot of thinking different forces working in the project, and thus the pressure, power and problem-solving capabilities become stronger.
Although there are benefits matrix organizational structure, and there are some disadvantages that one should be aware of as well. Here are some of them:
• There can be a lot of confusion and conflict if there is ambiguity about factors such as the sharing of resources by teams or team, working in two departments.
• can increase the cost if there was a lot of project managers hired for the job.
• Since the key performance goes this is that there are a lot of power and independence of the decision and put on the team members or even the project manager, then there is access to a delay in the completion of the project.
That's all there is to the definition and the advantages and disadvantages of a matrix organizational structure. Many organizations find this structure to be very, very useful for the method of work and effective performance.
4 Organizational culture
to make our good understanding about the organizational culture, we need to know what culture is? Culture is basically a set of values and habits which are adopted by the people who living anywhere in the world. If we apply this definition of culture with the 'Organization' word unprecedented, and we in reference to the fundamental principles and values of the organization that is fixed and applies to all staff, without any bias or favoritism. It is the foundation of the public and private behaviors and reactions of all the people that work in the organization.
Organizational culture is not tangible. It can be best understood through the study of behavior and attitudes, values and belief system of employees. It distinguishes the colors and our perception of the business entity. Any employee to be effective no matter how efficient if it is unable to adapt himself to the work culture. Organizations with a focus on culture, since the growth and success depends on the type of culture prevailing in the company.Does not feel threatened staff or dear, is there a desire to work, grow, and they do not want to evolve as a group or go their separate ways?
4.1 Understanding organizational culture
Do employees feel concerned as far as securing their jobs? Is seen as the management of hard taskmaster? Can answer these questions will help appreciate the culture of the organization. Some organizations encourage employees to start at the base and work towards the top. Characterized by these organizations through the presence of a large number of staff who have been with the company for many years. Seniority in these organizations play a very important role and are guaranteed to a certain extent of job security. A culture that promotes work and grow together in some organizations family.In people work for a short period of time before quitting for good. Is seen to managers and hard taskmasters. It is expected that the staff to adhere to strict deadlines. "All work and no play" is the culture of these organizations. Of course also limited the interaction between the staff. The workplace may not be very friendly or comfortable. There may be intense competition and people will try to offer the best face. Moreover, people may burn out due to stress.
People’s expectations of the organization also reflect the organizational culture. People open to change and experience? Do they have ideological convictions? Are they ready to reinvent itself? Answer the questions once again that it will not help in the assessment of organizational culture. Companies that prefer to stick to the old values provide some comfort for the staff.These companies may stifle innovation and growth, but by discouraging people from experimenting. It can promote a culture of loneliness as a result of government in people harshly if they are not able to adapt to the rigid environment. Is the interaction between management and staff will also be in accordance with the rules and regulations? In fact, the outfit also provides hints about the value of
4.2 Types of organization culture
There are following types of organizational culture in current business environment.
4.2.1 Standard Culture
In the Organization's normative, and the stresses on the implementation of regulatory actions in the right way, in accordance with specific standards and rules. This is the kind of culture to film, a high level of business ethics.
4.2.2 Pragmatic culture
In contrast to standard cultures, emphasis is placed on meeting the desire of its customers. In this type of organizational structure, no rules are set by the company, and is given the utmost importance to the needs of the client.
4.2.3 Academy Culture
In this type of culture, and workers are highly skilled, and the Organization provides an environment to develop and hone the skills of staff. Examples of this kind of culture, hospitals, universities and large companies, etc. staff tend to stay with the organization, and grow within it.
4.2.4 Baseball team culture
In this type of culture, and workers are "free agents" and are greatly appreciated. Find the work of such personnel in any organization to easily and very much in demand. There are, however, a considerable amount of risk attached to this culture, as it is also fast paced. Examples of this kind of culture, advertising and investment banking services, etc..
4.2.5 Culture Club
Staff usually stay with the organization for a long time to get promoted to a senior position or level. These staff are hand obtained, it is necessary to have specific skills required and desired by the organization. Examples of this type of regulation and corporate law and military, etc.
4.2.6 Castle culture
Staff are not sure whether he would be laid off or not by the organization. In many cases, this organization is subject to tremendous changes. Some examples of this kind of culture, loans, savings, and the big car companies, etc.
4.2.7 Work hard / play hard
This type of regulation does not involve a lot of risks, and organizations originally composed of a well-established side by side with the client a strong relationship. And chose the most from this type of culture by large organizations that strong customer service. Organization has been equipped with this type of culture with specialized jargons and qualified with the multi-group meetings.
4.2.8 Process of culture
This kind of culture does not include the feedback process. In this type of culture, and organization are very cautious about upholding the law and preferably adhered to. This culture provides the consistency of the organization and good for public services.
4.3 Changing work culture
One of the most difficult tasks to do in the organization, is to change the work culture. Organizational culture change requires an organization to make modifications to its policies, business ethics and management system. It needs to start right from the base functions, which include support functions, and production processes and the floor, which ultimately affect the overall output of the Organization. It requires a comprehensive reform of the entire system, and it is not preferred by many organizations as a process and one long and boring, which requires patience and endurance. However, when the organization has succeeded in making a change at this level the tremendous, the results are almost always positive and fruitful. Must have helped different types of organizational cultures mentioned above is definitely for you to understand. You can also adopt one of them to organize your own, however, perseverance and patience is the ultimate essence.
5 Organizational Behavior
Organizational behavior is sum of personality, perception, attitudes and job satisfaction, group dynamics, politics, and the role of leadership in the organization and job design, and the effect of pressure on the work and decision-making processes, and the chain of communications and company cultures and climates.
They use a variety of techniques and methods to assess each of these elements and their impact on individuals and groups, and organizational efficiency and effectiveness. "Science and behavior," said by Gibson and others (Gibson, et. al, 1994)"We have provided the framework and basic principles for the field of organizational behavior every discipline Behavioral Sciences provides a different focus for a bit, and the analytical framework, and. Topic to help managers to answer questions about themselves, non- managerial staff, and environmental forces. "
With regard to individuals and groups, and researchers in an attempt to determine why people behave the way they do.
They have developed a variety of models designed to explain the behavior of individuals. They investigate the factors that affect the personal development, including genetic factors, situational, environmental, cultural and social development. Researchers also examine various personality types and their impact on business organizations and others. One of the key tools used by researchers in organizational behavior in these and other areas of the study is the study of job satisfaction. And use these tools not only to measure job satisfaction in concrete areas such as wages, benefits and promotional opportunities, and working conditions, but also to measure the behavior patterns of individual and collective impact of corporate culture, both positively and negatively.
5.1 Organizational behavior and corporate culture
The terms "corporate culture" and "organizational behavior" are sometimes used interchangeably, but in reality, there are differences between the two countries. Corporate culture includes shared values, attitudes, norms and beliefs and other characteristics that determine the operating philosophy of the institution. Organizational behavior at the same time, it can be the Under-stood in some ways and academic study of corporate culture and its various elements, as well as other important elements of behavior such as organizational structure and processes of the organization. Organizational behavior said Gibson, Ivancevich, and Donnelly (Gibson, et. al, 1994), is "the field of study, which relies on the theory, methods and principles from different disciplines to learn about individual perceptions, values and abilities to learn, and procedures while working in groups and within total organization; analysis of external influence of the environment on the organization and human resources, and missions, and objectives, and strategies ... managers effective know what you are looking for in terms of structure and process, culture, and how the agent's position is found, so managers must develop diagnostic skills, and must be trained to determine the circumstances of the symptoms of a problem that requires further attention and include indicators of problem low profits, low quantity or quality of work, and increases in the absence or delay, and employee negative attitudes of all these problems is an organizational issue.
Organizational studies, also referred to as organizational behavior, organizational theory, and include a systematic study and application of precise knowledge of how people act within organizations.
5.2 Systems framework
Within the framework of the statutes also to organizational theory, organizations are complex dynamic processes directed towards a certain objective. Kurt Lewin was particularly influential in developing countries within the perspective of the theory of organizational systems and coined the term "systems of ideology", of his disappointment with moral behavior, which has become an obstacle to sustainable work in psychology. (Ash, 2008) The perspective of complexity theory to organizations other systems point of view of organizations.
Systems approach to organizations relies heavily upon achieving negative entropy through openness and feedback. Look at the non-statutory disciplinary and integrated. In other words, it is beyond the views of the individual disciplines, and integration on the basis of the "code" in common, or more precisely, on the basis of official bodies provided by systems theory. Systems approach gives priority to the mutual, and not to elements of the system. Some of these relations the dynamic properties of a new system to emerge.In recent years, systems thinking has been developed to provide techniques for the study of ways to supplement the comprehensive traditional reductionist methods. In this more recent tradition, systems theory is considered in organizational studies by some along the Humanitarian of Natural Sciences.
5.3 Theories and Model
Mintzberg in managerial positions
rational model of decision-making
garbage can model
5.4 Motivation in organizations
Motive forces either internal or external to the person who raises the enthusiasm and the resistance to follow a specific course of action. According to Baron et al. (2008): "Although the motivation is the concept of a broad and complex, and scientists regulatory and agreed to the fundamental characteristics of the graphic social sciences different, as we know the motive set of processes that give rise to, direct, and the preservation of human behavior towards some goal,"
There are many different theories of motivation such as:
* Attribution theory
* Theory of Justice
* Maslow's hierarchy of needs
* incentives theory (Psychology)
* Model to work in organizations, emotional
* Theory Frederick Herzberg two factor
* Expectancy Theory
* organizational culture and behavior
5.5 Organizational cultures and behavior co-relation
One of the most common terminologies these days is to manage the organizational culture and behavior. In organizational culture despite there are differences in the meaning, its significance about managing people is very clear. It is basically relate to all these conditions that required understanding about the psychology of organizational staff, there are many tools which can be effective to use by the management in bringing the efficiency and capability to increase work rate of employees of the organization.
Organizational culture and behavior are correlated to each other. These two, are interconnected also affect each other inter-changing ways. Organizational Behavior is related to the study of how employees as individuals behave in their organization. It is the key area in human resource management. Organizational behavior studies on behavior of the individuals, that displayed by their Organization. It is about the public and the private behavior of workers and the response they made to certain motivation. It also sees the important individual in the group dynamics and team that creates organizational culture. Managers need to understand their staff behavior and to understand reason behind their actions in certain way so that later they can improve it when required to reduce the errors at work.
Over the years several theories have been proposed for organizational behavior. These theories gave different models of organizational systems. Organizational behavior, says that the shared vision and motivate staff lead the organization toward success and thus healthy organizational culture is developed.
5.6 Relations at workplace
whether personal or professional, must be one of building relationships in the workplace. However, fishing is one of how to deal with these relationships because they can lead to success, as well as the fall of the individual in his career. The following are some aspects about the relations in the workplace that one should consider linking with a colleague does not fall back.
It is true that the workplace is where you put it to use all the business acumen and skills that we acquire through training and experience. However, we all know that work is not just numbers and negotiations. It is much more about relationships - relationships with colleagues, with its chairman, and other staff, as well as with business partners. In addition to the relations in the workplace that are based purely on a professional basis, and get emotionally close to coworkers in the workplace is also common.
5.7 Maintaining relationships in the workplace
May your performance at the end of the month depends on the objectives achieved. However, it's not just your skills that determine your success. Your personality and the way he sees it as a person in your workplace go a long way in getting the opportunities that you need to prove yourself and also to achieve success in that. Here are some tips that will help one to maintain a positive image in the workplace:
professional but friendly: It is clear that you are at your desk at work. Clear to all that work comes first for you. However, do not be far away. If others need help and you can help them, and make that extra effort. However, stay away from delving into things that are very personal in nature. This is a good way to build relationships in the workplace and one who stands in a good position.
Professional Borders: being can be taken by many of the friendly, which can come to you with no problem to have. As long as the professional problems, and he was fine. However, be careful of that character. Give a clear signal to your colleagues at work that you are approachable, but only to the maximum. Maintain your professional ethics. Guard your privacy carefully and stay away from the personal affairs of others. Achieve the right balance between professional and personal aspects are a mantra for success in the workplace.
Avoid gossip: workplace communication is desirable. However, office gossip is very harmful to the organization both as well as its employees. Indulging in gossip is a good time - lost. If you ever talk directed towards gossip, in an attempt to turn them towards a positive direction. If that does not work, politely excuse yourself out of this conversation.
Trust Parameters: Although there is said to maintain the professional relationship in the workplace, and everyone needs to share ideas that may not be entirely of a professional nature. Each and every one of us has a friend in the workplace we have and we share a common bond with him closely.
5.8 Impact of Technology
Technology has brought many changes in organizational structures, their cultures and behaviors. The past time human relationship at work place and between organizations has changed due to fast and advance technology. Now companies have fast and raid decision making, communication and implementation of decision. The processes of change manement and administrations have been changed now. If we see Toyota corporation since its emerge in late 19th century it’s all structures, capacity, culture and behavior is changed due to advance technology. Now on its corporate culture the use of advance technology from decision making to production, later in supply and sale everything is changed with technology.
Different organizational structures are used by man since the development of human organizations. Right from beginning people who were fishermen, tribal army or farmers they have certain behaviors like decision that one man will lead the pack and will make distribution of everyday jobs to each one in team. The right from old times there was hierarchical system which was being followed everywhere. People were having assigned and defined tasks according to their capacity and learning. Each person was assigned to have leadership role at conduction of different responsibilities which were required for some task. At end there was a strong reporting system structure where responsibility was under analysis and questions and was accountability and there was some kind of performance evaluation. Community in itself is a formal organizational which have specific structure. Now with advancement in business the human organizations also went into a transformation that has made all the organizational structures, cultures and behaviors in new forms. The main aim for researchers is to study all this change and advancement so that they can effectively shape the future for these global organizations. Originations have to make adjustments in their structure , culture, and behaviors according to their need to get maximum from a market.
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