Why They Experiment On Animals Biology Essay
Ask the experimenters why they experiment on animals, and the answer is because the animals like us. Ask the experimenters why it is morally okay to experiment on animals, and the answer is," because the animals are not like us." Animal experimentation rests on a logical contradiction~ Magel
Back in 1880's, animals were first subjected to become the indicators of science achievement especially in medical research field. Also known as in-vivo testing, most of the animal experiments conducted through the vivisection, a process which carry the surgery on living specimens, regularly animals possessing with central nervous system to view living internal structure. Introduced as experimental method of testing surgical procedures, animal testing is practiced before applying to human patients. Controversy arise when Edmund (1665) stand on the point that which the animals testing as "the miserable torture of vivisection places in an unnatural condition". He testified that animal's physical as well as internal lining tissue could be affected by unexplainable pain throughout the harmful and unreliable experiments' procedures. In order to limit the situation, a rigorous law has been imposed, enacting in the British parliament on animal rights and protection (Animal Experimentation Debatase, 2000).
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According to Animal Experimentation Debatase (2000), the British Union for abolition of Vivisection (BUAV) predicts that over 100 millions vertebrates are experimented on around the globe each year. This statistics include 10-11 millions experiments in the Europeans countries. This increasing toll should be overcome in the presence of modern technology in present time. High development in technology nowadays enables people to create things that will benefit all sides, without harming effecting one side. Recently, in Johannesburg, South Africa new study released stated that the vaginal microbicide gel, PRO 2000 does not prevent HIV infection in females although it was tested safe and effective on nonhuman species (Mail & Guardian Online 2009). Microbicides are some microbes in the form of gel, creams or foams used to avoid the vaginal sexual transmission of HI virus and other sexually transmitted diseases when applied in the female reproductive organ. The trials include 9385 women in East and Southern Africa and proved the gel was safe but yet, it did not show any prevention on HIV infection.
Even though thousands of experiments has been carried out throughout these years, the questions on the topic still emerging from the mind. One of them is, improper technique for animal testing effect the animal population. Do you agree?
However, if people take a circumspect look at animal testing, they would realize that animal testing is indirect declaration on the extinction of animal kingdom from our planet.
This report will exhibit convincing evidences of why people should consider more seriously of the issues of extermination of animal population. The research findings are mainly on the effects from improper methods for animal testing which result in the decreasing number of animal population in the planet. This research also confined to the Britain alone because its has higher rate of the animal experiments compare to other countries and the exposure of the testing to the world is more obvious (Dixton 2000).
2.0 Experiments on Animals is Scientifically Unacceptable
Improved nutritional intake, standard living places and conducive environment had proved as the main factors to reduce the number of spreading diseases rather than information obtained from animal experimentation. There are high possibility that the data gained will mislead researchers and scientists from all over the world. When the possibility achieved the precaution level, the experiments done before are must be completely neglected and the data obtained are unreliable to be use on human patients. However, days by days, experimenters keep doing their work, ignoring what people critics about them. Experiments are conducted each day until successful outcomes achieved. Usually, nowadays' experiment can be divided into three major group which are drug and product test, education and the use of animals in biomedical and behavioral research. This three critical groups has increase theirs own demand for animals requirement in order to perform and proof their non-stop experiments.
2.1 Genetic Encoded and Physical Appearance Consideration
Most testing conducted on animal are nothing like humans (McGraw, 2000). As example, the guinea pig and the rat. These two creatures are among the most famous experimental laboratory animal which widely used across the world. Scientists and experimenters test them to evaluate the reaction occurs. Scientifically, as well as morally the experimentation is to be rejected. The reactions or responds of a mouse to a chemical substance is no guide to human reactions. Grady (1994) stated that although the pH of rabbit tears is different from human tears and rabbit's cornea is thinner than human's cornea, rabbits are still the primary subjects for cosmetic testing. Chimpanzee claimed as the most closely related animal with human being has more intelligent which means more immoral it is to treat such animal as disposable and worthless biological specimens (Animal Experiment Debatabase n.d). Each and every species has its own unique physiology. This means whatever the animal's responds to the chemical components are unreliable and impossible to expect the same reactions will occur towards humans. Despite the obvious differences between human and animals, is it makes any sense if we continue using animals as indicators of experiments to test drugs?
2.2 Inappropriate Condition of Animals to be Experimented
Testing on animals is scientifically invalid due to improper condition of the animals to be tested on. This situation can be happening when the animal experienced different kind of environment or being injected with foreign liquid in the body such as being in the cage, injected with anesthetics. This will lead to malfunction of certain organs as well as biochemical reaction in the body. Furthermore the pain from the process of vivisection will surely create some interference in the accuracy and consistency of the verdict obtained. In fact, some of the animals are chained up in steel cage whereas some are left to starve. The consequences of this situation will contribute to unreliable and variation of data that highly risk to be applied on human patients. As conclusion, it is never acceptable to test drugs on perfectly healthy animals, even the cure is going to be use on other animal.
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The animal shall not be measured by man.Â In a world older and more complete than ours, they move finished and complete, gifted with extension of the senses we have lost or never attained, living by voices we shall never hear.Â They are not brethren; they are not underlings; they are other nations, caught with ourselves in the net of life and time, fellow prisoners of the splendor and travail of the earth.Â ~ Beston
(The Outermost House, 1928)
Toxichip-A Solution to Animal Experimentation
Toxichip was proposed as 3 years research by a special group of international scientists and being sponsored by the European Commission. This research concentrate on the development of both cell-line based biochip that will examine the effect of toxic chemicals on cell lines and bacterial cells, thus alleviating the recent demand for animal sacrifice (Rhodes, 1994). Based biochips, which allow the detection of vast arrays of toxins not only in individuals chemicals, but also in environmental analysis of wastewater and drug development are used in the association with tissue culture has the potential to replace animal testing.
In order to eliminate the animals as the front candidates of medical research, bacterial cells based biochips are introduced. The bacterial cells based biochips developed will contain of genetically modified bacterial strains that react with the presence of toxins to send reports in that affected normal body cell (Rhodes, 1994). The bacterial cells will be generated so that they will detect the chemical toxins by exhibiting different colours. The colours indicate particular chemical toxics by differentiating the type of toxic by portraying different colour.
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