State of Marine Biotechnology Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture
Marine biotechnology is a multi-disciplinary and ever expanding field in world's leading technologies. Marine biotechnology encompasses the importance of marine resources to the world, either as the source or target to spread biotechnological applications. It refer not only utilization of living organisms to make a product or run a process, but also play key role in better understanding the life in ocean and help in conservation of marine species in a sustainable way. Marine biotechnology is a cutting-edge technology for manufacturing new medicinal products, cosmetics, foods, industrial chemicals. Marine biotechnology is grouped by all the branches of biotechnology and its application on marine species and strengthened by marine and molecular biology fields, manipulated to achieve desired goals. In mid 1960's, researches on sponges, marine algae, and other unfamiliar forms of marine life resulted with great surprise that new molecules of unprecedented types were found. These pioneering chemical researchers, who were amateur biologists at best, stated that the structures of entirely new chemical entities, biosynthetic compounds can be extracted from marine animals and also concluded that the oceans were indeed a new and exciting resource in the future studies. During 1960's another group of researchers extended their research on novel molecules present in marine organisms they clarified that new compounds identified from marine species were different from those produced by terrestrial plants and microorganisms and also chemical structures of these compounds were in the unknown list, they expected that halogens like iodine, bromine, and chlorine may be reason not only as substituent's in complex molecules, but also by acting as reactants to create entirely new classes of terpenoids and other structure classes of bioactive molecules. Aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector, compared to other food commodities. Captive breeding and domestication will enable the development of successive culture methods with diverse array of species to expand the commercial aquacultures. Marine biotechnology is the only field that can give the complete knowledge of the biology of many of these species and the cost efficient technology development that increasing the productivity and sustainability of this sector. Aquaculture is a sector that is likely to benefit greatly from the application of appropriate genetic and reproduction biotechnologies to increase food production. The main challenge of fisheries and aquaculture sector is to double sea food production by year 2025. Many countries like Norway, Chile, China and other coastal nations, had shown aggressive development from the past few decades in aquaculture with very impressive results and projected that aquaculture and mariculture would be a major driving force to increase food production.
Molecular biology is another important field concern to marine biotechnology that contributs its efficiency in solving the problems regarding the sustainable fisheries and exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the scientific approaches in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. (Narsinh L. Thakur et al., 2008)
Marine biotechnology deals with the development of commercially useful products through the application of modern biologic and technologic approaches to marine organisms. Contribution of marine biotechnology has grown in recent years, in extracting medicines, biomaterials, and industrial enzymes from marine organisms. A revolution in biotechnology has occurred as a result of recent advances in molecular level, and it is a field of science concerned with the study of marine organisms and its chemical structures for processes of biological important compounds.
Marine biotechnology plays 3 key roles in fisheries and aquaculture
Sustainable production and management of biological resources from land, forest and aquatic environments and also deals with exploring and studying various resources of marine habitat.
Production and supplement of Food (including seafood), health and well-being for the growing population.
Life sciences, biotechnology and biochemistry for sustainable non-food products and processes like extraction of important natural products and increasing the disease resistance, size, yield capacity in aquatic species.
The potential applications of marine biotechnology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, significantly through improved nutrition, increased reproductive capacity, and disease management and extensive coverage of basic and applied research on aquatic organisms in freshwater, and brackish water environments for exploitation of living resources, and related legal, policy, and socioeconomic issues. Since 2001, rapid biological and biotechnological progress has resulted in a more efficient and environmentally responsible aquaculture and a greater diversity of marine food products.
Marine Biotechnology has contributed significantly to increasing production efficiency and product quality, to the introduction of new species (GMO'S) for intensive cultivation and the to the development of sustainable practices. However, commercial aquaculture continues to face challenges in understanding and controlling reproduction, chromosomal manipulation, induction of polyploidy, early life-stage development, , nutrition, disease and animal health management and environmental interactions. There is about 26 years of Successful history of GMO'S research on transgenic fish more than 30 species of fish have been genetically engineered, including many of the major world aquaculture species like carps, tilapia, catfish and salmonids in response to the growing demand for foods from aquatic sources for growing human population Although several commercially important traits are being modified (Table 1), most effort has been targeted to enhancing growth and feed conversion efficiency through the transfer of growth hormone (GH) gene constructs (figure 1) The ability to genetically modifying genome technology had shown importance of marine biotechnology to support sustainable management of fisheries aquaculture. (Robert H. Devlin et al., 2006)
Robert H. Devlin et al., 2006. TRENDS in Biotechnology Vol.24 No.2
Robert H. Devlin et al., 2006. TRENDS in Biotechnology Vol.24 No.2
Surrogate production in fish is a technique used to obtain the gametes of a certain genotype through the gonad of another genotype and in future this surrogate production technology will completely minimize certain genotype problems of aquaculture
Robert H. Devlin et al., 2006. TRENDS in Biotechnology Vol.24 No.2
Chromosomal manipulation technique is the introduction of polyploidy sterile species in aquaculture where sterile fish are desirable to prevent the side effects such as deterioration of carcass quality due to maturation or the occurrence of high mortalities in stocks and grows faster than the wild species. (Choy L. Hew et al., 2001).
Molecular markers are being applied in developing countries in both aquaculture and fisheries management
Resent survays shown that fisheries declined due to overfishing, pollution and pathogens. For an example: virus, bacteria and protozoans had shown anxious effects on the shrimp industry in Hawaii and oyster fisheries in both the Chesapeake Bay and Gulf of Mexico. Sadly there was no effective treatment during last decades but current researchers have brought up strategic solutions from marine biotechnology, where by blocking the parasite's ability to proliferate in the host using molecular methods that influence the host-parasite relationship. Coming to the genetic engineering solutions which involving the use of DNA based tools, even though genes responsible for disease resistance in fish are not completely characterized but several approaches are possible using transgenic technology for sustainable fisheries. Some of the gene technology contributions to fisheries are as follows: Antisense and Ribozyme technologies could be used in order to neutralize or destroy the viral RNA. Another successful advance technology is to express the viral coat proteins like the 66 kDa G protein of IHNV in the host membrane, which triggers out the receptors for the viruses, viral penetrations. Expression of antibacterial, antimicrobial Lysozyme and other cationic peptides against peptides of pathogens Expression of cytokines, interferon's to boost the host immune systems and other host genes involved in immune defence
For aquaculture, it is important to reduce losses due to unexpected damages from toxic algae and jellyfish, extreme weather and wave conditions, extreme temperatures and acute pollution uncertain diseases to marine species.
Marine biotechnologists recently found that seaweeds, marine algal and bacterial byproducts have potential use in the aquaculture, food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. For example, extraction of antibacterial compounds from seaweeds and kelps, the immunostimulating glucan compounds from microalgae, probiotics from bacteria for acquiring healthy yield and sustainable fisheries and aquaculture.
Marine biotechnology also expected to be a key technology in future bioindustry, may mainly focus on the utilization of marine microorganisms as novel bioresources for production of useful materials such as biomass, enzymes, and fine chemicals as hosts for heterologous gene expression, for biogas production, and for biological carbon dioxide fixation..
Biosensors are increasingly being adopted to monitor environmental changes and the effects of bioremedial efforts. Biomarkers and other diagnostic tools are being developed to measure risk assessment. Government and public agencies are addressing a series of policy issues on marine biotechnology involving funding, user conflicts, regulatory frameworks, and intellectual property protection through recent national policy initiatives.
after initiation of feeding; bacterial infection
of gills, usually the result of sestonosis, the inflammation of gill tissue by exposure to
suspended particulate (seston), is very common; fungal and bacterial attack of fins
requiring frequent chemical treatment is also common; and some systemic diseases still
cause high mortality under certain conditions.
application of a number of biological technologies including those based upon
recombinant DNA technology, peptide biochemistry, hormone therapies, and
chromosome set manipulation.
Genome studies of different commercially important fish and the genetic variability of their populations has been reviewed earlier. Such information is essential for effective management of oceanic fish populations. These studies demonstrate the promise of molecular techniques for addressing questions that were previously difficult to answer. The studies regarding the genetic variability of commercially harvested fishes like salmon and tuna have demonstrated that new mitochondrial and nuclear
DNA technologies will permit a definition of population structure, identification of stocks and quantification of gene flow. Genetic variation in skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis (L.)
was investigated using PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. The results showed high level of genetic diversity within a population of K. pelamis from India and Japan. The identification of essentially self-recruiting populations as units for fisheries management is a prerequisite for the conservation and sustainable utilization of fish biodiversity. Molecular markers have been shown to be
particularly useful in freshwater and anadromous species, most notably in the assessment of mixed stock fisheries and the assessment of stocking. However, molecular markers can also be used to investigate genetic changes caused by over fishing and "stock collapses". Previously, researchers in the field of quantitative genetics relied primarily on statistical approaches, large-scale breeding projects and common-garden experiments to tease apart the genetic and environmental components of fitness traits. The field has expanded recently following the development of a wide range of molecular genetic tools (motivated to a large degree by advances in the human genome project) that can be used to locate the genetic loci underlying these traits. Now genome-mapping approaches are in use to find markers linked to gene loci involved in fitness traits such as growth, age at maturity and disease resistance in Pacific salmon. These markers are useful tools in understanding the genetic diversity underlying these adaptive traits in salmon populations and in using predictive approaches to answering many of the questions raised above. For decades, genetic intervention has been used to enhance animal and plant agriculture production. These techniques are now being applied to aquatic animals in an effort to overcome many different production challenges. Aquaculture is an important part of the economy of several countries. Both traditional techniques as well as molecular biological tools are being used to develop aquaculture. Novel genetic technologies involving the use of DNA based tools are also under development for a range of aquaculture species. Genetic improvement of aquaculture species offers a substantial opportunity for increased production efficiency, health, product quality and, ultimately, profitability in aquaculture enterprises. These gene marker technologies can be used for identification and monitoring of lines, families and individuals, monitoring and control of inbreeding, diagnosis of simply inherited traits and genetic improvement through selection of favourable genes and gene combinations. Aquaculture often relies on wild population for brood stock. The application of genomics in this area helps to identify and select elite brood stock,which is fast growing, healthy and of high quality. In short, aquaculture genetics shows immense potential for enhancing production in a way that meets aquaculture development goals for the new millennium.
In future generations may have increased researches on aquaculture and fisheries like increase in disease resistants in culturing species and sustainable sea food forming
The future application of safe biotechnological solutions to enhance the efficiency of food production, including transgenic fish, might stem the need for continued growth of conventional agricultural production systems to the benefit of natural ecosystems.
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