Oxford Referencing

An Overview

The Oxford Referencing System employs footnotes and a bibliography but you may also be required to provide a reference list and endnotes (a reference list differs from a bibliography because a reference list contains only works from which you have quoted and that appear in your footnotes, whereas a bibliography contains every work consulted.)

Footnotes are used throughout, identified by consecutive superscript numerals at the end of either a quote or the sentence including the quote. The first time you quote from a book use the title in full, after this, abbreviations may be used.

In Oxford Referencing, the basic format to cite a book in a bibliography and footnote is as follows:

  • Author - in the form of surname and initials followed by a comma
  • The full title in italics followed by a comma
  • The edition, if other than the first, followed by a comma
  • The name of the publisher followed by a comma
  • The place of publication followed by a comma
  • The year of publication followed by a full stop.

Thus, the citation of a book in Oxford would read like this:

Brown, J., Oxford Referencing, 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008.

To cite journals in an Oxford bibliography, use the following format:

Edward, P., 'How to Reference', Referencing Today, vol. 4, no. 3, 2008, pp. 53-4.

That is, as for a book, inserting the title of the article before the title of journal, then the volume number, copy number, year of publication and page numbers.

To cite electronic sources in an Oxford bibliography, use the following format:

Edward, P., How to Reference, Oxford Online, vol. 3, no. 4, 2007, retrieved 4 September 2008, <www.OxfordReferencing.org>

That is: author, italicised title of article, name of website, volume, number, date, date retrieved, URL (underlined).