Oxford Referencing

Oxford Referencing: An Overview

The Oxford Referencing System employs footnotes and a bibliography but you may also be required to provide a reference list and endnotes (a reference list differs from a bibliography because a reference list contains only works from which you have quoted and that appear in your footnotes, whereas a bibliography contains every work consulted.)

Footnotes are used throughout, identified by consecutive superscript numerals at the end of either a quote or the sentence including the quote. The first time you quote from a book use the title in full, after this, abbreviations may be used.

In Oxford Referencing, the basic format to cite a book in a bibliography and footnote is as follows:

  • Author - in the form of surname and initials followed by a comma
  • The full title in italics followed by a comma
  • The edition, if other than the first, followed by a comma
  • The name of the publisher followed by a comma
  • The place of publication followed by a comma
  • The year of publication followed by a full stop.

Thus, the citation of a book in Oxford would read like this:

Brown, J., Oxford Referencing, 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008.

  • To cite journals in an Oxford bibliography, use the following format:

Edward, P., 'How to Reference', Referencing Today, vol. 4, no. 3, 2008, pp. 53-4.

That is, as for a book, inserting the title of the article before the title of journal, then the volume number, copy number, year of publication and page numbers.

  • To cite electronic sources in an Oxford bibliography, use the following format:

Edward, P., How to Reference, Oxford Online, vol. 3, no. 4, 2007, retrieved 4 September 2008, <www.OxfordReferencing.org>

That is: author, italicised title of article, name of website, volume, number, date, date retrieved, URL (underlined).

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