MHRA Referencing

An Overview

MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association) Referencing is widely used to cite and reference works within the humanities. It has been adopted as the primary style by many schools, colleges and universities.

MHRA employs the system of superscript sequential numerals in the footnotes and reference/bibliography style to cite references within the body of an essay.

To cite a book in a bibliography using MHRA, follow this format:

  • Author - forename and surname followed by a comma
  • Title in italics
  • Place of publication followed by a colon, publisher followed by a comma and date of publication all in parenthesis.

(N.B. Add page numbers after this followed by a full stop in both footnotes and reference lists but not in bibliographies except in the case of articles in journals.)

Hence, a book cited in MHRA referencing appears thus:

John Taylor, MHRA Referencing (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).

To cite an article in MHRA Referencing, follow this format:

  • Author - forename and surname followed by a comma
  • Title of article in single quotation marks followed by a comma
  • Title of journal in italics followed by a comma
  • Volume number
  • Publication date in brackets followed by a comma
  • Page numbers followed by a full stop.

Hence, a journal article cited in MHRA appears as follows:

John Taylor, 'MHRA Referencing', Referencing Today, 12 (2003), pp. 33-40.

To cite an electronic source in MHRA Referencing, follow this format:

  • Author - forename and surname followed by a comma
  • Title of article in single quotation marks
  • Title of source in italics followed by a comma
  • Publication details (volume, issue, date)
  • URL
  • Date accessed in square brackets.

Hence, an electronic source cited in MHRA, follows this format:

John Taylor,'MLA Referencing', Referencing Online, 2, 9 August 2007, <http://www.referencingonline>[9 August, 2008]