Harvard Referencing: An Overview
Harvard Referencing employs the method of including references to cited works within the text of your essay in parenthesis, as opposed to using footnotes. There are two ways of doing this:
- Brown (2008, p. 43) suggests that 'referencing should always be clear'.
- It is agreed that 'referencing should always be clear' (Brown, 2008, p. 43).
However, if you refer indirectly to an author's ideas, it should be referenced like this:
It is agreed that clear referencing is essential in academic work (Brown, 2008).
When you prepare your bibliography, ensure that the textual reference is easily identifiable.
To cite books in a bibliography using the Harvard Referencing System you should adhere to the following criteria:
- Author - in the form of surname and name/initials followed by a comma
- Publication date, followed by a full stop
- Title in italics followed by a full stop
- Place of publication followed by a colon
- Publisher followed by a full stop.
Thus, the citation of a book in Harvard would read like this:
Brown,J., 2008. Referencing Styles. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Your bibliography should be arranged alphabetically by surname (if there is more than one author, follow the order used on the title page of the book).
- To cite journals in a Harvard bibliography, use the following format:
Davis, C.,2008. Referencing. Journal of Modern Referencing, 2(4), pp. 231-320.
That is: as for a book but inserting the title of the article before the italicised title of the journal followed by the volume of the journal with number in brackets and page numbers.
- To cite electronic sources in a Harvard bibliography use the following format:
Web Guide to Referencing. 2007. Is Referencing Essential.(Referencing Essays).[Online] Available at: http://www.ucas.uk.referencing [accessed 11August 2008].
That is: the name of the site, the article, the URL (underlined), the date sourced.